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Full text of "Knight Letter No. 68"

KDight Letter 



THE LEWIS CARROLL SOCIETY OF NORTH AMERICA 



NUMBER 68 SPRING 2002 




fix SO: fh<s DisD^y foSueace 



Everything's Coming Up Roses 

Our annual Fall gathering took place in and around 
Pasadena, host of the Tournament of Roses Parade and the 
Rose Bowl Game, which, combined with the strains of 
"Painting the Roses Red" from the Disney film, cast a rosy 
glow over our October 27 th meeting. 

As the Disney powers-that-be were making only 
perfunctory gestures regarding the 50 th anniversary of the 
release of their A W film (a few doodads are to be had), due 
to the concurrent foofaraw over the 100 th anniversary of 
Walt's birth, it fell upon the LCSNA, and in particular Daniel 
Singer, playwright 1 , collector, and ex-Disney Imagineer, to 
garner some festivities around this significant milestone. 

On Friday, the Maxine Schaefer Children's 
Outreach Fund Reading took place, appropriately, at the Walt 
Disney Elementary School in Burbank. About 60 kids in 
two Fifth grade classes were each given a hardback A W and 
treated to an animated (ahem) reading of the Mad Tea Party 
scene by Patt Griffin and New York actor Andrew Sellon, 
here on his first foray into California. The Q&A session 
was quite lively, and proved once again how in today's society 
the book and the Disney movie are often confused. 

The first part of our Saturday gathering was at the 
"historic" Tarn o'Shanter Inn, a Tudor cottage with Scottish 
decor, including a portrait of a young Bonnie Prince Charlie, 
who presided over our dining room. The Inn has been the 
scene of many a luncheon (some actually involving food) 
by Disney and his animators over the eighty years it's been 
in existence, but most notably in the thirties and forties. 

We began with a seminar on the making of the film. 
Charles Solomon, author, critic and historian of animation; 
Dan Singer; and Kathryn Beaumont-Levine, who portrayed 
Alice in the film, were participants. Charles' British 
counterpart Brian Sibley was supposed to have joined us, 
but was prevented from traveling at the last minute, so 
selections from his afterword to the edition of AW 



illustrated with David Hall's 1939 concept drawings for the 
film were read instead. 2 In brief: 

Walt Disney (1901-1966) might have seen one 
of the early Alice movies 3 in Kansas City, but he certainly 
had read the books as a child. In The American Weekly (1946) 
he said "No story in English literature has intrigued me more 
than AW. It fascinated me the first time I read it as a 
schoolboy, and as soon as I possibly could, after I started 
making animated cartoons, I acquired the film rights to do 
it" — something of an odd comment for a work in the public 
domain. However, he did acquire the film rights to the 
Tenniel drawings in 1931. 

The success of the '33 Paramount film put a dam- 
per on his enthusiasm for a spell. Disney did not abandon 
the idea, however. In the early forties, he had thought of a 
live-action Alice in a cartoon world, in line with his early 
"Alice comedies" ( 1 924-1 927) 4 and had hoped to get child 
star Gloria Jean for the role. In 1944, the studio provided 
some artwork for the three-record AW album starring Ginger 
Rogers. 

At long last, after many false starts and turnarounds, 
50,000 man-hours, three million dollars, and 700,000 
drawings, Alice in Wonderland premiered in London on 
July 26, 1951, a gala event attended by Disney and Miss 
Beaumont in her Alice costume. 

Dan Singer then entertained us with his personal 
reminiscences of his lifetime involvement with the film, 
including the illustrations he did when he was eight. His 
box of goodies included the Laserdisc, which has a ton of 



1 Did you know that Dan was a co-founder of the Reduced Shake- 
speare Company and co-author of the enormously successful The 
Compleat Works of Wllm Shkspr (abridged)*? 



2 Methuen, 1986 and Simon & Schuster, 1987; containing more than 
a hundred of Hall's remarkable paintings and drawings, this must be 
counted not as an oddity (the works having languished forgotten for 
four decades), but one of the most remarkable suites of illustrations 
to the books ever made. It's also criminal that Disney chose to use 
the "cartoony" look of the finished film rather than these stunning, 
provocative, imaginative and, above all, artistic images. 

3 Hepworth's 1903, Edison's 1910, or the Nonpareil's 1915 

4 There were 56 titles, such as "Alice's Wonderland", a.k.a. "Alice in 
Slumberland", 1 926, featuring Virginia Davis. On October 16, 1998, 
both Disney "Alices" (Davis and Beaumont) attended the Disney 
Legends Ceremony. 



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splendid ancillary material 5 regrettably not to be found 
anywhere else, including DVD releases. He took us through 
the development of an animated film, from the idea through 
the storyboard (another Disney invention 6 ), the story 
conferences (transcripts of whose raw language and creative 
fires are on file in the archives), and quotes from Walt on 
maintaining Carroll's "screwball logic" and some rather 
unflattering words for Alice fans. 7 Some of Disney's false 
starts were mentioned, including Aldous Huxley's brief 
involvement, 8 and Walt's attempt to duplicate the technique 
of mixing live action and animation such as the 
aforementioned "Alice comedies" and The Song of the 
South (1946). 

Charles Solomon gave us a fascinating talk on the 
context of the film. In the 1940s Disney was nearly broke. 
His great work was thought to be behind him, his pictures 
were losing money, and the war had evaporated the European 
market. Peter Pan (1953), Wind in the Willows (1949) and 
Cinderella (1950) 
were all in various (and 
expensive) stages of 
production. 

The Disney 
studios were known 
for the free rein of the 
imagination granted to 
the animating directors 
and for their artistic 
integrity (required 
studies included art, 
anatomy, and move- 
ment). The "flat" style 
of competitors such as 
UPA {Gerald McBoing 

Boing, etc.) was far Kathryn Beaumont 

less expensive than Disney's rounded forms and dimensional 
movement, continuing a Renaissance tradition. Walt was 
quite personally involved with the films, and would often 




5 Disney's "Exclusive Archives Collection Laser Disc Box" (6139 
CS) contains an astonishing amount of supplemental materials: the 
complete One Hour in Wonderland TV special from Dec. 25, 1950, 
Disney's first foray into television, which features Kathryn as 
"hostess"; a 1951 promotional film. Operation Wonderland, 
presented as originally broadcast on Ford Star Review on June 1 4th, 
1 95 1 : a lengthy excerpt from The Fred Waring Show of March 1 8, 
1 95 1 . which is both a charming example of early live television and a 
chance to see Kathryn perform the "Alice" songs live. There's also 
a one-hour BBC radio dramatization based on the film; snippets from 
the animators' live-action reference film; and an audio recording of 
"Brahms' Lullaby" from August 26. 1 947, which is labeled "Kathryn 
Beaumont Test". Also included are song demos, among them "Beyond 
the Laughing Sky," which was written for Alice but which appeared 
— with new lyrics — as "The Second Star to the Right" in Peter 
Pan. 

6 Most probably invented by an assistant of Ub Iwerks. 

7 The full quote can be found in "Aldous in Wonderland". KL 49, p. 6. 

8 ibid 



walk the corridors at night, rescuing drawings from 
wastebaskets. "Animation must show a caricature of move- 
ment - essence by exaggeration." 

Alice opened to bad reviews and in the midst of 
controversy — Disney was accused of deliberately keeping 
Lou Bunin from using the Technicolor® process in his AW 
(1950), which featured a live Alice moving through painted 
sets and pixilated puppets. 9 

Dan spoke again on the nature of animation (12- 
24 drawings per second), how characters were created 
(model sheets of their construction and movements), and 
how timing and body motions were suggested by the 
"reference films" Kathryn made. He mentioned that this 
technique had been unsuccessfully attempted by Bela Lugosi 
in portraying the Chernabog monster for the "Night on Bald 
Mountain" sequence in Fantasia. 

The lovely Kathryn Beaumont (now Mrs. Allan 
Levine) spoke next. Miss Beaumont 10 had been our honored 

guest once before, at 
the West Coast 
Chapter meeting of 
our Society in June, 
1983. As an eleven- 
year-old girl, London- 
born and Wales- 
reared", contracted to 
MGM and living in 
Los Angeles, she 
came to the attention 
of Mr. Disney, as she 
charmingly called 
him, as a talented 
actress 12 whose accent 
was English without 
and Dan Singer being "too British for 

American theater-goers". During the filming, she said she 
felt very much a part of the team, and was in the unusual 
position of both being the "action figure" for the reference 
films and the vocal and singing talent. 

These reference films, done in costume and 
without sets (although a frame house or teacup might be 
constructed) helped the animators with their timing and 
figure work. She shared with us many still photographs, as 
well as stories such as her attempts to remain upright in the 
teacup in the "Pool of Tears" sequence while stagehands 
pitched and rolled the platform. This "rotoscope" technique 
was used in other films - for instance, the movements of 
the hippos, alligators, and ostriches in Fantasia were first 



9 Bunin's "Ansco" film processing has faded severely. The film is 
available on video. 

10 A fine "tribute page" to Ms. Beaumont can be found at www.don 
brockway.com/kb.htm. 

" Bangor, North Wales, where her father, Ken Beaumont, was a 
musician with the BBC Variety Orchestra. He was also the voice of 
a "Card Painter" in the film. 

12 In the 1948 Esther Williams vehicle On an Island With You. 



danced by stars of Diaghilev's Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo! 

Another tale involved animator Marc Davis, one 
of the many directors of the picture (each with a different 
scene) accompanying her to costume fittings to ensure that 
the fabric would move in the correct way. 

Her voice work was done always live (that is, with 
all the actors on the same soundstage) and she reminisced 
about working with Jerry Colonna, Sterling Holloway and 
Ed Wynn. She also took a promotional tour in 1951, which 
coincided with her summer vacation, on the Queen Mary 
from New York to England, a nice reflection of Alice 
Hargreaves' crossing in 1932. 13 Miss Beaumont, of course, 
then played "Wendy" in Disney's Peter Pan (1953), and her 
ability to retain her young vocal persona has led to work 
throughout the years in several Alice attractions in Disney 
parks, the Parade of Lights, video games and so on. For most 
of the intervening years she has been a teacher in elementary 
school. 

It was a great thrill to be in the room with Kathryn, 
and it was easy to see why Mr. Disney chose her. Occa- 
sionally during her talk, particularly when she became 
excited, her hands would flutter and her voice would go up 
and suddenly we were inside the movie with Alice herself! 

Dan then shared some more stories of the animators 
(all male) and the inkers, painters, and "in-betweeners" (all 
female) at the studio in those years. The Disney studios 
made all their own paints, and many colors and tints are 
recognizably theirs and theirs alone. All the other studios 
went to a store called "Cartoon Colors" and so have much 
the same palette. 

After lunch, we moseyed over to the Disney 
Studios in Burbank. Generally closed on Saturdays, they 
were kind enough to open just for us. We strolled along the 
paths, admiring the topiaries in the shape of cartoon 
characters, the names of the streets (e.g. Dopey Drive), and 
the huge Main Animation building, whose roof seemed to 
be held aloft by that platoon of adjectival dwarves associated 
with Miss White. Permitted a few precious minutes in the 
main archives, we drooled over the treasures on display. We 
then walked by the giant multiplane camera (used in the 
opening Oxford sequence of the movie) and into a small 
theater. A sparkling new print was shown, with gorgeous, 
pristine colors and sound, where many nuances were visible 
- a great treat for those who only knew the film from its 
video release. 

After the film, Charles and Dan had an informal 
talk about the film. The forties were a great period of 
experimentation for Disney (Salvador Dali was briefly hired 
there). Admiration was expressed for the bizarre irreality 



13 When Mrs. Hargreaves crossed the pond in 1932, it was on the 
Berengaria, pride of the Cunard line. (Re)named after Richard the 
Lionhearted's queen, it had caught fire in New York harbor in 1 938 
and was sold for scrap. Cunard introduced the Queen Mary in 1 936, 
where it was the fleet's flagship until 1 967, when it was sold to Long 
Beach CA as a tourist attraction. 



of the final "March of the Cards" sequence. Mary Blair, one 
of the few women artists permitted to work at the Studio, 
had used a particular shade of blue in her paintings which 
became the hue of Alice's dress. 

They also went into the problems of the film - why 
it lost money and was really never popular as a movie (the 
video releases in '81 and subsequently more than made up 
for the $3 million fortune lavished on it in its day). First 
was the fact that it was a series of mini-scenes, not 
particularly related, rather than a coherent whole; in fact, a 
vaudeville review rather than a story. There was also a certain 
distancing from the secondary characters, all of whom were 
rather annoying. Alice herself suffered from the inherent 
problems in animating a "pretty girl" - comic characters 
can be exaggerated, distorted, and strike comic poses, which 
is not the case with a "human". Then there were the songs - 
insipid in the main, dismally treacly at worst ("Very Good 
Advice") -which pretty much served unintentionally to bring 
the movie to a screeching halt whenever they occurred. A 
movie "aimed at all ages" satisfies none. Let's not mention 
the title slide, which credits the story to "Lewis Carrol". 

A sidebar was noted to the sixties culture's adoption 
of this film as part of a psychedelic animated trio (the others 
being Fantasia and Yellow Submarine) for stoners. The 
Disney film also has most lamentably superceded the 
original text in much of our society. Analogously, who 
remembers the original horrifically macabre Grimm 
versions of Snow White and Cinderella? 

However, it certainly must be granted a limited 
success on its own terms. The voice characterizations are 
superb, the animation sparkles, it is somewhat faithful to 
the "spirit" of the book, and it is really quite entertaining in 
spots. Some scenes, such as the Caterpillar's, are about as 
good as cartoons get, which is very good indeed. 

The question-and-answer period brought out such 
tidbits as the unreleased sequence of Stan Freberg voicing 
the Jabberwock. 

That evening, the ever-amazing Dan Singer hosted 
us in his new arts-and-crafts digs. On display were his 
collections of Carrolliana and Disneyana. The front yard, 
set up for a tea party, was dominated by an enormous tree 
with a metal Disney Cheshire Cat perched high in its limbs 
and a little door at ground level. An entire studio in the back 
was given over to paraphernalia from the film and its many 
merchandising efforts. Inside, Carrollians mixed in with 
civilians - friends of Dan, often in show business - and were 
served drinks by a Barmouse and munched on the various 
"EatMe"s. 

The next day, Sunday, some members went to an 
exhibition of orginal art and booksigning for DeLoss 
McGraw's new illustrated Alice at the Skidmore 
Contemporary Art Gallery in Malibu. 

As we bade farewell to "beautiful downtown 
Burbank" and environs, we were left with a lovely bouquet 
of rosy memories. 



s^~ 



The White Stone 

Kate Lyon 

Charles Dodgson died of bronchitis on 14 January 
1 898. On May 1 and 1 1 of that year, at the Holywell Music 
Room, Oxford, most of his most precious possessions were 
auctioned. Professor Frederick York Powell, who had been 
a colleague at Christ Church, was so upset by the auction, 
writes Hudson, that he was moved to write a poem about the 
event. The final verse is reproduced below. 
'Better by far the Northman's pyre, 
That burnt in one sky-soaring fire 
The man with all he held most dear. 
'He that hath ears, now let him hear. ' 

Professor Powell's words, if he had but known it, 
already contained some truth. Many of Charles Dodgson's 
private papers were destroyed, some burned, almost 
immediately after his death. In following years, volumes of 
his Diaries were misplaced. In the fire died all but a shadow 
of the extraordinary writer and philosopher known as 
Charles Dodgson, but from the ashes rose the beginnings 
of a myth that has endured for over 100 years - the myth of 
Lewis Carroll. 

Fortunately that myth is now being challenged and 
as the shadow cast by its colossal form begins to waver, the 
first slivers of light are being cast upon the man so long 
obscured by this artefact. Yet very much more needs to be 
done, beginning with a close re-examination of the surviving 
evidence of his life. Of this evidence, one of the most abiding 
is Dodgson's 'white stone' ritual - his habit of marking those 
special days in his life with a white stone. 

This paper, therefore, is an attempt to explain what 
is significant about the White Stone as metaphor and to 
examine and bring together some of the strands of 
Dodgson's life that influenced his decision to adopt this 
symbol as his own. In doing this, it is hoped that further 
light will be shed on this complex and often elusive figure. 

THE WHITE STONE IN THE LANDSCAPE 

In 1765, Charles Dodgson's great grandfather, the 
Reverend Dodgson of Elsdon, welcomed an appointment 
to a living as Bishop of Ossory, in Ireland. He held this 
position until 1775, when he was appointed to the Bishopric 
of Elphin and Ossory passed to William Newcome. 

Elphin has an ancient history. Ono, one of the 
Druidic lords of Roscommon, presented to St Padraic 
(Patrick) his fortress Imlech-Ono, and Padraic established 
a bishopric there, on a pre-Christian site. In 1841, as a result 
of the earlier Church Temporalities Act of 1832, the 
Bishopric of Elphin became part of Kilmore and Ardagh. 
The name itself, Elphin, derives from the Irish 'Aill Finn', 
meaning a 'white stone' - the white stone which was to 
feature so strongly in Dodgson's Diaries. 
. . . they pointed to the groves and holy wells. . . 
dedicated. . . marked by upright stones, chiselled on 
the upper part with a cross in relief. 

The Ancient Stone Crosses of England 
Alfred Rimmer 



These stones marked sites where spiritual energy 
was particularly concentrated. Often the stones marking a 
centre of pre-Christian worship were buried, and Christian 
churches were erected on the site. The ancient Greeks knew 
of such a centre, the Oracle at Delphi, and referred to it as 
the omphalos [6ii(paX6a\ the centre of the world. In Viking 
Norway, these stones in sacred places were known as 
Hellige hivide stene (holy white stones). Such stones, says 
Nigel Pennick, were 'cylindrical pillars terminating with a 
hemisphere, made from white stone, either marble, quartzite 
or granite.' Pennick continues to say that it is likely that 
these stones were the object of worship of Yngvi-Frey, who 
was one of the ancient gods of the Norse pantheon. In 
Clackmannan, Scotland, for example, there is a similar stone 
which stands by the church, hallowing 'the centre-point of 
the land, where the spiritual essence is at its height'. 

In many cultures, the centre-point, or omphalos, 

was marked by a great tree or pole - Yggdrasil, the World 

Tree in Norse mythology being one example. It is the tree 

which gives us the symbol of the cross. Benson refers to 

the following: 

The ancient Druids. . . took as the symbol of their god 

a living tree, a stately oak, cutting off all its branches 

except two on opposite sides, forming thereby a giant 

cross . . . The "accursed tree, " as the early Christians 

designated the cross upon which Christ was crucified, 

a death of suffering and disgrace, has become the 

symbol of vicarious sacrifice and atonement. . . The 

meaning of the Christian Cross is clear and significant. 

It is the symbol of life eternal, of redemption and 

resurrection through faith. 

In Cumbria, Lutwidge country, there is a cross 
which illustrates this. The lower part of the Gosforth Cross, 
at St Mary's Church, depicts the Norse World Tree - 
Yggdrasil, which marked the centre of the world. The upper 
part of the cross shows the triquetra, the symbol of the 
Trinity. In Hoxne, Suffolk, there is a cross which was erected 
in 870 A.D., commemorating the execution of King 
Edmund of East Anglia, on a tree which stood there until 
1848. 

The Celtic Cross stands in many Irish churches and 
churchyards, and the ancient sun wheel, which forms the 
background to the cross, describes well the nature of Christ 
as the light of the world. The sun wheel is the circle which 
'entwining the cross has become a familiar Christian 
emblem symbolising eternal life, without beginning and 
without end' (Brewer's). The Celtic monks of the early 
Church had a simplicity and a love of nature that manifested 
itself in the joy of God's creation, and went a long way in 
converting a Druidic people to the new religion. 

Throughout Great Britain and Ireland are many holy 
wells, also sites where the faithful could petition the divine. 
They are now dedicated to Saints, but long ago formed a 
part of pre-Christian belief, and far down lie countless small, 
white quartz stones thrown into the waters. The faithful 
visiting these early shrines would drop a white stone in to 
the well. It was an offering, and a private communion between 



the suppliant and the divine. The altar at St Trillo's Chapel at 
Llandrillo-yn-Rhos (Rhos-on-Sea), is sited over a holy well, 
and outside the chapel the ground is littered with small white 
stones. The chapel itself was founded at the place where a 
saint bore testimony to a Celtic Cross of light which 
emanated from the ground. 

Alice in Wonderland includes a reference to a holy 
well - during the Tea Party, the Dormouse, responding to 
Alice's query about why Elsie, Lacie and Tillie lived at the 
bottom of a well, says that it is a treacle well. Alice's 
immediate response is that there is no such thing, but she 
later humbly concedes that "There may be one. " There is 
one, of course, the Treacle Well at Binsey in Oxfordshire - 
a well dedicated to St Margaret. 

Dodgson enjoyed walking; even in old age he 
insisted on undertaking long walks through the countryside 
- a countryside steeped in history and the myths of diverse 
cultures. Wherever he turned, place names evoked these 
myths, stirring an ever fertile imagination. In pre-Christian 
and early Christian society, each thing encountered by the 
people and each feature of the landscape had its own identity. 
To quote Pennick again, 'Each name reflected some inner 
nature, a personal quality that had meaning. In the 
ensouled Celtic worldview, the personality of every place 
and artefact was recognised to be as real as the individual 
personalities of human beings. This is the case with 
seemingly inanimate objects such as stones and crosses. 
Such an ensouled world can only exist when there is 
intimate personal contact with existence. ' Such an idea 
must have seemed particularly relevant to the Victorians, 
caught as they were in a world where increasing 
industrialisation was fast promising to remove the essential 
character of a hand-made artefact, and where the leisurely 
peace of the country was gradually being disturbed by the 
railway. To a man as filled with wonder and uncertainty as 
Charles Dodgson, Victorian Britain with its certainties, 
rationalities and its blinkered focus on progress, progress, 
progress, must have seemed as threatening as an onrushing, 
uncontrolled locomotive. Dodgson liked railways - and 
progress - but preferred knowing that there was a restraining 
and guiding presence in the cab! 

VIA CRUCIS - THE WAY OF THE CROSS 

Then do folk long to go on pilgrimage, 

And palmers to go seeking out strange strands, 

To distant shrines well known in sundry lands. 

~ The Canterbury Talesf Prologue) 
Geoffrey Chaucer 
The placement of these Crosses and stones was 
significant. In early Church history it was the custom of the 
Church to grant Plenary Indulgences to those who were able 
to undertake a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, and walk in the 
footsteps of Christ. Some succeeded in making the 
pilgrimage, but many failed - old age, war, sickness, all took 
their toll. The Church at Rome recognised the difficulty 
facing many of the faithful and permitted the Stations of 
the Cross to be erected, usually on a hill or mound - a 
decision which enabled worshippers to undertake a 



pilgrimage and meditate at each stopping place. Similarly, 
when the early Christian monks travelled about the 
countryside, it became their custom to erect a wooden 
marker, or sometimes a stone, to mark the place where they 
had preached to the faithful. These stones, then, became a 
place of worship and meditation, a stepping stone in the 
spiritual journey which drew one nearer to God. They can 
be found on the old pilgrimage roads and track ways, in 
churchyards, anywhere that the dead might be rested on their 
way to burial and their preparation for a new life within 
Christ; a place where prayers could be said or a weary 
traveller could become spiritually refreshed. Many pre- 
Christian monuments were re-dedicated with the Christian 
symbols, the fish or the Cross, sanctifying a holy place and 
presenting a silent testimony to the presence of God in 
everyone, despite differences in belief. Some were simply 
reconsecrated. In the early days of the Church, Masses were 
generally only said on a feast day, and it was customary to 
carry out the saying of the Mass at the tomb of the martyr 
or saint, which once again explains the significance of the 
Cross on these sites. The altar stone is a reminder of those 
times. 

These places are still commemorated in the place 
names of Britain - names such as Market Cross, Palmers 
Cross, and Whitstone (White Stone). Through the city of 
Guildford runs an old footpath known as the Pilgrim's Way, 
which led from Winchester to Canterbury. Palmer's Cross, 
for example, derives its name from the custom of presenting 
those who had completed their pilgrimage with a palm 
branch, long a symbol of the victorious. Brewer's explains: 
"To bear the palm " alludes to the Roman custom of 
giving the victorious gladiator a branch of the palm- 
tree. 

When the triumphant Christ entered Jerusalem, the 
crowd strewed the way with palm branches and leaves {John 
12:12-19). As a reminder of that day, a consecrated palm 
branch was given to a palmer, the pilgrim who had reached 
the Holy Land. He carried the palm branch back to his 
homeland, and laid it upon the altar of his parish church as a 
reminder of his victory. On Palm Sunday, faithful Catholics 
receive a palm, which is kept by the crucifix to inspire 
devotion until the following year. 
"He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith 
unto the churches; To him that overcometh will I give 
to eat of the hidden manna, and will give him a white 
stone, and in the stone a new name written, which no 
man knoweth saving he that receiveth [it]. " 

Revelation 2:17 
The palm was the symbol of the final victory, the 
overcoming of the trials faced by the pilgrim on his difficult 
journey. The journey, as we have seen, was marked by stones 
or crosses, where the pilgrim could stop and rest, and 
become sufficiently renewed so that he could continue on 
his journey. In Roman times, invited guests were presented 
with tesserae, which were small white stones which could 
be broken into two parts. Each party wrote his name upon 
his piece, and they were exchanged as a sign of hospitality, 



the name remaining secret, a pledge of friendship and 
hospitality between the two parties. 

A successful Roman gladiator was awarded the 
tessera, which took the form of a white stone with the letters 
SP [L. spectatus, proven, past participle o/specto] engra- 
ved upon it, which also served as an admission ticket to the 
feasting which followed, and was a recognition of victory, 
and an outstanding performance in overcoming his oppo- 
nents. A white stone day was just cause for celebration - 
providing both spiritual and physical sustenance, and reward- 
ing the victorious. The Greeks also had their equivalent in 
the wreath of victory, presented to the winner in the races at 
the games. A pilgrim in later times had only to present a 
stone at certain houses, proclaiming that he was a pilgrim, 
and he would be taken in and given bread and drink. 

The end of the journey could also be physically 
marked by a stone, or a cross, both also 
symbols of final victory and eternal life. 
Pennick explains that 

The ensemble of the burial mound 

with a standing stone or image on 

top of it is the forerunner of the 

Celtic high crosses. . . [also in] the 

shape of the leachta. (These are 

small, altar-like structures). On top 

of each leacht is a stone slab. . . set 

into this an upright stone cross. 

Leachta are holy stopping places at 

which prayers are offered by devout 

people. 

The Greeks also erected 
tombstones, a standing stone or herma, 
constructed from one large upright 
stone surrounded by smaller ones. The 
name of Hermes ['Epp.r)s\, the Greek 
god who later became known as the 
psychopomp and led the dead from this 
world to the next, is connected to this word herma [ep/ia], 
meaning stone heap. From very early times, the custom of 
also using these 'stone heaps' as markers for travellers, 
particularly at crossroads, existed in Crete and the Greek 
areas. 

"And the Gentiles shall see thy righteousness, and all 

kings thy glory: and thou shalt be called by a new 

name, which the mouth of the Lord shall name. Thou 

shalt also be a crown of glory in the hand of the Lord, 

and a royal diadem in the hand of thy God. " 

Isaiah 62:2-3 
The white stone or cross, the palm branch and the 
crown, or wreath of victory, were interchangeable symbols 
of the victor, the pilgrim who has overcome adversity at the 
end of the journey, and gained spiritual sustenance along 
the way by stopping at the smaller markers which marked 
the religious and physical stages of the journey. 

One can see, therefore, that to Dodgson, the White 
Stone harboured deep spiritual and emotional significance. 
It was a form of spiritual marker, a reminder that life is indeed 




a journey along which one passes just the once and that to 
succeed in this journey, one must divest oneself of such 
unnecessary and debilitating burdens as pride and sloth. At 
all cost, one must also remember that the quest requires 
adherence to a purity of spirit, an innocence which Dodgson, 
throughout his life, saw most vividly expressed in his 
relationships with children. He found within their presence 
that lack of artifice and that simplicity which the monks of 
old had sought - and found - and which suggested to him 
the presence of the sacred. 

Many times in the Diaries appears the reference 
to the white stone day, albo lapillo notare diem, as it was 
known in Latin. The first reference appears in his Diary of 
4 September, 1855, and says simply "Mark this day, o 
Annalist, with a white stone. " Wakeling's annotation to the 
Diary entry records this as being " Dodgson s method of 
indicating a special day which had 
given him great personal 
pleasure. " It was a common enough 
term in Victorian times, but to 
Dodgson it meant more than merely 
a 'red-letter day'. 

Numerous similar entries 
are to be found in his published 
Diaries during the years 1855 to 
1867. These white stone references 
occur on days when he was inspired 
or uplifted in some way, perhaps by 
art or music, as in the entry of 18 
March, 1856, when he heard the 
beautiful words of Handel's 
Messiah, sung by Jenny Lind. But 
by far the majority of references 
occur on days when he was in the 
company of children. He found that 
"Their innocent unconsciousness is 
very beautiful, and gives one a 
feeling of reverence, as at the presence of something 
sacred." 

Dodgson had a constant struggle to overcome 
earthly temptations, and gain the tessera on which was 
written the name, which was a reminder of the covenant 
which existed between each man and his God. It was a 
constant battle, but along the way there was help, white stones 
which marked a day which had made the journey easier. In 
Stolen Waters, it is the pure and chaste child who provides 
salvation. "And a little child shall lead them. " (Isaiah 11.6). 
It is she who provides the manna, the spiritual bread of the 
pilgrim, and reminds him of the garland still to be won, 
whose silent presence turns him away from the path of folly 
and inspires him to seek "The garland waiting for my brow, 
That must be won with tears, With pain-with death-1 care 
not how. " For Dodgson, the presence of the childlike and 
innocent must have seemed like angelic intervention. 

The need to live a pure life was paramount to 
Dodgson. At any time could come the call to fight the last 
fight, and the need to be constantly prepared was always 



there. Never, even for a moment, could he cease to be 

vigilant. And vigilant he was. He ate and drank sparingly, and 

took long walks, through a countryside which was filled with 

constant reminders of the sacred. 

Be sure the safest rule is that we should not dare to 

live in any scene in which we dare not die. 

But, once realise what the true object is in life - that it 

is not pleasure, not knowledge, not even fame itself, 

"that last infirmity of noble minds" - but that it is the 

development of character, the rising to a higher, 

nobler, purer standard, the building up of the perfect 

Man - and then, so long as we feel that this is going 

on, and will (we trust) go on forever more, death has 

for us no terror; it is not a shadow, but a light; not an 

end, but a beginning! 

Sylvie and Bruno (Preface) 
This, then, is the significance of the white stone in 
the life of Charles Dodgson. Like the original white stones 
throughout Britain which marked the presence of the sacred, 
the White Stone Day to Dodgson also marked a day when 
he had experienced the sacred, in children whose 'innocent 
unconsciousness is very beautiful, and gives one a feeling 
of reverence', in music, or in art, or in the words of the 
Bible. Like the white stones and crosses which marked the 
way of the pilgrim, Dodgson's marked the shrines on his 
own road. They brought hope that one day he would feel 
worthy to preach the words of Christ; and he was inspired 
by these moments, as he drew towards the end of the 
pilgrimage, when he would receive the new name and eternal 
life. 

Dodgson wrote a set of Directions regarding my 
Funeral, etc., in which the last line requested that 'there be 
no expensive monument. I should prefer a small, plain head- 
stone, but will leave this detail to their judgement.' Even 
then, he disliked artifice. 

Charles Lutwidge Dodgson is buried in the Mount 
Cemetary, Guildford. His monument is not the small, plain 
stone which he sought, but a white marble cross, on which 
are inscribed the words 'Thy Will be Done.' The pilgrimage 
was over, the white stone attained. 

A Nameless Epitaph 

Ask not my name, O friend! 

That Being only, which hath known each man 

From the beginning, can 

Remember each unto the end 

Matthew Arnold (1867) 



pn 



jzmoriam 



Works cited: 

Hudson, D. Lewis Carroll An Illustrated Biography. Constable. 

1976(1954) 

Pennick,N. The Celtic Cross. Blandford. 1977 

Benson, G. W. The Cross: Its History and Symbolism. Hacker 
Art Books. 1976(1935) 

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. Cassell. 1988 (1870) 
Cohen, M. Lewis Carroll. A Biography. London: MacMillan. 1995 

Wakeling E., ed. Lewis Carroll's Diaries . Lewis Carroll Society 
(U.K.) Vol 1, 1993. 



B.BJTo6aHOB 

Vasily Vasil'evich Lobanov 

Jan. 8, 1926 -Dec. 6, 2001 

The distinguished Russian librarian and Lewis Carroll 
bibliographer, Vasily Vasil'evich Lobanov, died in 
Tomsk, Siberia, on Dec. 6, 2001. Mr. Lobanov 
received the Soviet "Medal for Bravery" for his 
efforts during the fight against the Germans in the 
Second World War. He was a 1962 graduate of the 
Philological Department of Tomsk State University 
and the author of many books, including a catalog of 
incunabula and a bibliography of Slavonic books 
published in the Cyrillic alphabet from the sixteenth 
to eighteenth centuries. His meticulous bibliography 
of Russian editions of Lewis Carroll's works was 
issued in privately printed fascicles over several 
years and then collected in an edition published by 
Moscow State University in a special number of its 
journal Folia Anglistica in Autumn 2000 [KL 66 
pp. 4-5]. I had the honor of corresponding with Vasily 
Lobanov for the past four years and counted him as 
a friend. 

~ August Imholtz 




I tried those self-whitening toothpastes, but actually 
it was the dental strips that did the trick for me." 

cartoon by Casey Shaw 



Leaves from the Deanery Garden 

Now and then Knight Letter drops like a thunderbolt from' 
its usual superior cruising altitude into sheer profundity, 
and to me, Issue 67 is one of those moments. I was proud to 
be thar, as we say in Appalachia. I enjoy being jolted till I 
frizzle. Two unlikely stars happened to collide, and the 
explosion is still brilliant. The first I noticed was in "Of 
Books and Things" (p. 2 1 ), where an Amazon.com reviewer 
of AW is (maybe, but maybe not) deservedly slammed for 
the following astonishing excerpt. Of course, the comments 
in brackets are mine. I put them in mainly to show ecstatic 
frenzy. 

"Maybe the author has English back round... A lot of her 
{Alice's} decision during the book make no sense. . .And 
why would she follow the rabbit to an unknown land to 
begin with? {Yes, why?} One thing of the book 1 did not 
understand was the theme. {Me neither.} One other thing 
I didn't see in the book was a plot {nor do I}. In my 
opinion this book. ..had no 
meaning {ditto, if you add 'single' 
after 'no'}. It had no moral, and 
nothing to learn from it. {Refuses 
to let one on the premises.} So I 
think the book was very pointless. 
{And proud of it.}" 

Look again; there are gems here — 
oddly cut, I grant you. Cumulatively, 
it is an ingenuous summary of what 
is arguably Carroll's greatest 
invention — the anti-narrative, so 
richly functioning and still so lacking 
in essential features. It was a time 
when novelistic bent for both adult 
and children's work drove in the 
direction of indomitable con- 
struction — as in most of the classic 
Victorian/Edwardian fiction writers 
between James Barrie and George 
Elliot. Yet Dodgson, this pedant/ 
divine whose personal life was one 
long compelling rubric, concluded that in fiction less is 
more, and not only that, but a springboard to even less, and 
then, even less again. This was opening the way for literary 
modernism. Yet he makes it stick, no mean task, especially 
for a pioneer. Alice, which doesn't show even string and glue 
holding it together, is so much more seaworthy than, for 
example, the bolted-and-caulked Peter Pan. Peter, despite 
musical success, is on the decline, but Alice's popularity 
keeps growing by its own power. 

If you can stop yourself wondering whether the Amazon 
reviewer thinks Carroll is a butcher specializing in odd cuts 
of meat — "English back round" — or possibly suffering from 
an exclusively British spinal affliction, notice how 
effortlessly this thinker isolates and separates ultra-inherent 
narrative elements — theme, plot, motivation — from the 
whole. 



It is as if Carroll were present to the writer in a form like 
one of those pre-sliced hams so easy to serve up because it 
only looks whole. It sounds as if the reviewer has not so 
much discovered as assimilated, in what might be called the 
"Alice process", how to have jam and no jam at the same 
time — an operating story with most of the story stuff absent. 
This rare effect is not unknown in literature. Both 
Shakespeare and Spenser display it now and then. Reading 
that review, I got the feeling that a child, probably an older 
child, was writing. Such children have stumbled on the tombs 
of Pharoahs and on the cave mouths which conceal the Dead 
Sea Scrolls. Maybe more children should become critics. 

Put it this way. Of the quoted sentences above, which would 
your critical sense of AW allow you outright to deny? 

Second: on page 1 5 a very careful and precise adult, Karoline 
Leach, comes to much the same conclusion as the Amazon 

reviewer. That is, she jostles 
into it during an exasperated 
attempt to reify conclusions 
of John Docherty's about 
Charles Dodgson, based, as 
she sees it, on logical fallacies 
and no extra-textual evidence. 
It's just a little general 
observation at the head of a 
paragraph. She probably 
doesn't give it much thought, 
as she is in the press of an 
important argument about 
what constitutes valid evi- 
dence (and good manners). "In 
that sense {Docherty's inter- 
pretive method} Alice is no 
more than an ink blot test — 
we find what we want to see 
there. If you... are convinced 
...{of a particular interpreta- 
tion } then that is what you will 
find." By me, Leach has got it 
in one — whatever she was aiming at. Alice is what you make 
her. (This point is a valuable contribution to our studies by 
poet Stephanie Bolster.) AW surpasses any other do-it- 
yourself text I ever read for completion and ease of 
execution. 

The inkblot is also a mirror; you see what you bring. Bear 
with me while I carry the metaphor a bit further. If authors 
authoring were painters painting, with Carroll standing among 
them, and all using the same tools and brushes — Carroll 
would be the one turning out not natural scenes or people, 
but a seamless mirror. Casually, and with no different tools. 

We are dealing with a construction as deliberately empty as 
the Bellman's blank sea chart. It is emptied. Carroll keeps 
us in Flatland by refusing to create depth. In a way we 
ourselves are erased. As poet Alan Tate says, we become 
"function, depth and mass / Without figure, a mathematical 




shroud / Hurled at the air." Why? How? Carroll has a thousand 
tricks for making his work impenetrable. Verisimilitude 
never left an author colder. He won't let us escape the moving 
line of words — even of letters. Yet Carroll scholars seem 
as a group strangely uninterested in the production of the 
entrapping surface. How many scholars examine AW purely 
as constructed narrative? Whether scholars begin with the 
text and then turn outward from it, like Leach, to investigate 
history and biography, or inward, like Docherty, to establish 
meaning, far too few examine the mechanism, the 
workmanship. We look for meaning when we should be 
looking for method. 

Carroll, the author, is always in control — ferociously so. 
His precision is far beyond average, even for a "great" author. 
It is not surprising. He had inherited skills from his father, 
honed them through a productive boyhood, and never, 
apparently, experienced any dramatic shift in style or 
purpose. To me, the author-reader relationship with him is 
always slightly controlling — beneath the antic persona he 
cultivates. Perhaps this is one satisfaction he gained from 
child-friendships — the child follows a leader. But it is 
doubtful whether critics removed by experience and time 
should allow him still to control them — to drive them off 
with his ferocious expertise and predilection for privacy. 
We must not be intimidated by a fascinating surface. Beneath 
it, there is a brilliant, absolutely unique, construction to be 
investigated. It is like a pretty little bomb perhaps activated 
inside a Faberge egg. The time comes to break the shell, let 
the pearls roll where they may, and figure out what's ticking 
in there. Otherwise, the next Amazon.com review may have 
to do it for us. 

Finally, Carroll study is particularly vulnerable to what might 
be called the streetlight syndrome. Remember the joke about 
the drunk who drops his watch at night in the middle of the 
block? He looks for it on the corner because he can see so 
much better under the streetlight. The big questions don't 
go away because they go begging. Why is characterization 
so fluid? What is the theme — or, if the work is allegorical, 
what is the process analogized? Why do characters whom 
the author has sensitively humanized then behave so un- 
humanly? Charting conflict is one of the biggest challenges 
in the book. Why are we unsure of every main character's 
motive? Does Alice experience any revelation at all during 
the climax? 

It's a mistake to shrug off questions because they have no 
answers. I don't say all this critically, but to caution. I wish 
somebody would write a book exclusively about Carroll's 
narrative strategies and constructs, however tentative. Maybe 
somebody has. I'm new around here. Tell me if you know 
one. In the meantime, Kenneth Burke can put all this in 
perspective: "what we want is not terms that avoid ambiguity, 
but terms that clearly reveal the strategic spots at which 
ambiguities necessarily arise." (A Grammar of Motives, 
U.C. Press, 1 969) To realize how slithy Carroll's ambiguities 
remain, is to begin at least to survey the tasks that I describe. 

Chloe Nichols 




On New Year's Day a float called "Wonderland of 
Imagination" won the President's Trophy at the annual Rose 
Bowl Parade in Pasadena. This was a fabulous rolling display 
of the Alice landscape and characters, made from many kinds 
of flowers, split peas, rolled oats, and corn husks (all 
surfaces on floats must be covered with plants). The Cheshire 
Cat hung near the back, rolling his head and wagging his tail. 
"Look at the animation on that tigerl" urged the announcer 
on HGTV (Home & Garden TV network). Yours for more 
English literature classes, 

Angelica Carpenter 

More details on the float are in Car roll ian Notes, p. 15. 

In "Tracking down the Jabberwock" {Knight Letter, Issue 
67), Alan Martin wonders if the Arabic words "al-Jabr w'al- 
muQabalah" influenced the naming of Carroll's poem 
"Jabberwocky." The Arabic is the title of a mathematical 
book published in 825 a.d. by al-Khowarizmi and means 
"the art of bringing together unknowns to match a known 
quantity". As Martin notes, the words already gave English 
the term algebra and the author's name the word algorithm. 
Understanding that the article was abridged, I was wondering 
if the author attempted to peruse the dictionaries and the 
mathematical books Carroll owned. One of the mathematical 
books could have made some minor reference to the Arabic 
title and certainly one of his dictionaries could have had the 
etymology for algebra listed. Checking just three of these 
dictionaries at The New York Public Library, I found that 
Worester's (noted in CLD's diary for April 4, 1867) and 
Richardson's (listed in the auction sales) mention only 
alginbarat and jubr roots without mention of w'al- 
muqabalah. Another dictionary Carroll owned, Cole's, had 
no etymology and another, Webster's, had too many to 
choose from. The other dictionaries he was known to have 
owned upon his death were either unidentified or not 
available. 

Despite Martin's well-researched paper, I believe Carroll, 
in naming his poem "Jabberwocky," was influenced by the 
fabricated words in the pre-existing first stanza: brillig, 
slithy, toves, gyre, gimble, wabe, mimsy, borogoves, mome, 
raths, outgrabe — all but one appearing with a red wavy 
underline as I write. He was obviously influenced by the 
word "jabber", defined as "to talk rapidly, unintelligibly, or 
idly" — a certain feeling one gets from reading the stanza. 
Carroll's title has even entered our language as a word, 
meaning "nonsensical speech or writing." Perhaps its 
entrance was facilitated not only by jabber's meaning but 
also by its onomatopoeic b sound, a plosive consonant with 
an expressive lip movement. So many words with similar 
definitions, no mere coincidence, employ the letter: babble, 
gibber, blather, gabble, gab, gibble-gabble, blabber, blab, 
blether, burble, blatter and, of course, jabber itself. Naming 
the poem after a concept — the ^-ending — rather than the 
beast — "The Jabberwock" — probably aided its entrance as 
well. 




10 



Jabber's appearance in Jabberwock is surely not' 
coincidental. Perhaps due to the obviousness, the point does 
not even necessitate a comment in Martin Gardner's The 
Annotated Alice. Most, but not all, of the first stanza's made 
up words have etymologies from basic English words, 
supporting my somewhat bland assumption of Carroll's 
intentions. Since so many words in English are curiously 
similar, sometimes even the same, and have separate 
meanings, the concept Alan Martin suggests should probably 
be labeled "expected coincidence" — for odds are 
coincidences should occur from time to time. In point of 
fact, the wordjabber is the only babble word with a possible 
double meaning of some relevance to a fighting creature, 
that is, jabber: "one who jabs, punches." Think "the claws 
that catch." If Carroll thought hard on the issue — 
Babblewock?, Gibberwock? — he certainly chose wisely. 

Further, two words that are often thought to be nonsense 
but are not — burble and whiffle — have a similar meaning 
with jabber. In the poem, these two words, by no mere 
coincidence, specifically refer to the Jabberwock who 
"Came whiffling through the tulgey wood / And burbled as 
he came!" Due to other English words and the context of 
the poem, one can hardly miss an oral definition for 
burble — a word Carroll likely thought he made up. Despite 
its proposed "burst" and "bubble" etymology and its 
legitimacy, he wrote to Maud Standen (Letters, December 
18, 1877): 

if you take the 3 verbs "bleat," "murmur," and "warble," 
and select the bits I have underlined, it certainly makes 
"burble"; though I'm afraid I can't distinctly remember 
having made it in that way. 

Note that Carroll's three words are all vocal descriptions. 
Clearly, the creature is named after the jabbering sound of 
the nonsense words. 

Besides these arguments, what reason would Carroll have 
to allude to or be influenced by such an unconnected 
concept as this mathematical work? Part of the Arabic does 
mean "to oppose, compare, or set one thing against 
another" — a connection between "Jabberwocky" and the 
mathematical work Martin fails to notice. But still, the two 
concepts seem too disconnected. 

So what's cookin' in Carroll's "-wock"? Whether con- 
sciously or simply using a subconscious poetic feeling, Car- 
roll could have been influenced by the related words roc 
and cockatrice, and the less likely wyvern, the only related 
word beginning with a w. But, with the jabber beginning, 
the first two letters of the word word and the near rhyme 
word talk — Jabberwords, Jabbertalk — also come to mind. 
Cockatrice is defined as "a mythical serpent reputed to be 
hatched from a cock's egg and supposed to have the power 
of killing by its glance". Think "eyes of flame." Roc is 
defined as "a legendary bird of prey of enormous size and 
strength". Perhaps Mr. Martin won't be surprised that it 
derives from Arabic. 



Carroll himself addressed the meaning of the word 
Jabberwock. When a Boston school wrote him requesting 
to name their magazine after the beast, he responded 
(Letters, February 6, 1! 




Mr. Lewis Carroll has much pleasure in giving to the 
editresses of the proposed magazine permission to use 
the title they wish for. He finds that the Anglo-Saxon 
word "wocer" or "wocor" signifies "offspring" or "fruit." 
Taking "jabber" in its ordinary acceptation of "excited 
and voluble discussion," this would give the meaning of 
"the result of much excited discussion." 

Due to Carroll's tone and present-tense research, one should 
not take him too seriously here, nor interpret this as a 
declaration of the word's true etymology 20 years before. 
Though I happen to believe his meaning of jabber, I doubt 
Carroll had wocer in mind when creating the poem. There 
is a son in the poem, of course, but he is the Jabberwock's 
slayer. 

Matt Demakos 

I'm hoping that the LCSNA might like the opportunity of 
accommodating academics, researchers or simply visitors 
to London connected with your Society, in a house 
frequently visited, though never owned, by Lewis Carroll. I 
have recently finished restoring the unique, Gothic-looking, 
three-bedroom town house in Camden Town/Mornington 
Crescent that used to be the home of George MacDonald, 
author and great friend of Lewis Carroll's. MacDonald lived 
there for many years with his family and the house became 
the hangout of several other important literary and artistic 
figures of the time; John Ruskin and Ford Maddox-Brown 
to name but two. I'm fairly sure that George MacDonald's 
children were the first to hear read out loud the story that 
was eventually published as "Alice in Wonderland", and there 
is no doubt in the minds of historians and researchers that I 
have spoken to that the reading would have taken place in 
the self-same house. 

I have had an application in with English Heritage for a blue 
plaque to George MacDonald for nearly three years now so 
my case is bound to come up for consideration fairly soon. 
The house has been beautifully restored, if I may say so 
myself, and in my mind, still retains the magic that might 
have inspired the writers and artists of the time. The house 
itself was designed and built by an artist, Charles Lucy, in 
1843, and contains a exact plaster cast copy, of which there 
are only three in existence, of Michelangelo's "Madonna 
and Child", set into the wall of the entrance hall. It is 
currently on the market to let for £900 per week. 

Should you like to know any more about the house, please 
do contact me. I assure you the house and the willow tree 
that stands in front of it make an absolute picture, and I've 
no doubt it would be a great asset to your Society, as well as 
a pleasure for Lewis Carroll lovers to stay there. 

Sebastian D. Tennant 
sdtennant@telinco.co.uk 



11 




What a fine name for a landlord! However, further 
inquiries revealed that it can only be let for a year or 
more, as it is unfurnished, so a shorter time period would 
be considered impractical. 

I enjoyed Ruth Berman's article "Reflections on a Week of 
Wednesdays" in Knight Letter 68, especially the part about 
"Knot X" in A Tangled Tale. Ruth questions whether the 
"Knot" was influenced by the International Prime Meridian 
Conference in Washington, DC which began October 1, 
1884. Carroll's "Knot" appeared a month later in the 
November issue of the Monthly Packet and deals in part 
with his "where does the day begin" puzzle of old. 

Wondering when the public was informed of the conference, 
I checked Palmer's Index for The Times, available online at 
The New York Public Library. The first mention appeared 
on September 22 under the umbrella headline "The United 
States (By Anglo-American Cables.)" The entire paragraph 
reads: "The International Conference to fix a prime meridian 
meets in Washington on October 1 ; arrangements are now 
making for the sessions in the State Department. Almost 
every country of Europe and America will send repre- 
sentatives." 

The conference received its first headline in the October 4 
issue. Though the conference was mentioned twelve times 
between October 1 and 22, and once on November 3, these 
mostly consist of only a few sentences. A long commentary 
(lacking a headline as was the practice of the time) and a 
separate news report appeared in the October 15 edition. 

Below is a chart showing all the knots for which we have 
some hint of a composition date. (The lag days were figured 
from the dates Ruth sent to the Lewis Carroll eGroup after 
her article appeared and assume a first-of-the-month 
publication date for each issue). 

Date Month Lag Days 

Feb 20 Apr 1880 40 

May 30 Jul 1880 31 

Feb 19 Apr 1882 41 

Nov 22 Jan 1883 39 

Vm Finished Jan 21 Aug 1883 191 

♦Carroll acknowledges the acceptance. 

Since 40 days seems to be a mean average, though based on 
slightly different occurrences, the September 22 date of 
The Times notice and the November appearance of the Knot 
curiously fit: 



Knot 


Occurrence 


I 


Accepted* 


m 


Mailed 


vn 


Finished 


DC 


Finished 



Month Lag Days 
Nov 1884 39 



Knot Occurrence Date 

X The Times Sep 22 

I do not mean to suggest that Carroll was influenced directly 
by any given newspaper or even this specific newspaper, 
though the possibility remains. Regardless, more 
newspapers need to be checked to confirm exactly when 



the conference was "in the air". Sadly, the New York Public 
Library is not the best facility for researching old British 
periodicals. However, The New York Times, dated just two 
days after its British namesake, did print a half-column 
notice of the event. The proximity of these two dates 
supports a possible world-wide news "leak" sometime after 
mid September — the time Carroll is recorded to have 
finished previous Knots. 

If Carroll was not influenced by this conference, it remains 
a terrific coincidence. In all his letters to telegraph 
companies trying to solve his own "Knot", and even in his 
failed Monthly Packet answer, he never mentioned the 
conference or an International Dateline. 

Lastly, Ruth mentions that in 1882, Samoa decided to have 
two Fourths of July to coincide with America's calendar 
instead of Australia's. Well, the 4 th of July for that year was 
a Tuesday!!! So the question is what day of the week were 
these "fourths". If the 3 rd were a Monday (all around the 
world — which I am not sure about), then they must have had 
two Tuesdays in a row — a small part of Looking-Glass 
coming true. 

At the end of her piece, Ruth thanks me for suggesting 
Blaise's book Time Lord; but I wish to go on record that I 
did not enjoy it. If interested in the topic, please try any 
other source she lists. 

Matt Demakos 

[Time Lord was recently awarded the Pearson Writers ' 
Trust Non-Fiction Prize.] 

I'm grateful to Matt Demakos for showing that Carroll would 
have had time to add the day-beginning riddle to "Knot X" 
after news about the Prime Meridian Conference had started 
to appear in the general papers. Information about the 
upcoming Conference had gone out to the scientific 
community about a year earlier, and I had assumed that 
Carroll would have heard about it through his academic 
contacts and would have begun thinking then about the 
possibility of presenting his riddle again. But the first 
announcements in the general newspapers would have 
reminded him that the subject was about to be topical and 
that he should hurry up and send his material on it to the 
Monthly Packet. I suspect that the reason Carroll did not 
mention the Conference in his discussions of the answers 
to "Knot X" was that he was disappointed that it did not, 
after all, make any formal recommendation for adopting an 
International Dateline. 

Ruth Berman 

[Ruth is responding to MatPs letter, above, which she was 
sent before publication.] 

Hear about the gryphon that tried to board a flight with two 
dormice in his beak, but they wouldn't let him on? New rule: 
only one carrion allowed. 





Alan Tannenbaum 




12 



<©jr 



Fits of Peake 




8c 



...'and what is the use of a book,' thought Alice, 'without 
pictures or conversation?' [sic!!]. So begins the Bloomsbury 
edition graced with the restored 1945 Mervyn Peake 
drawings and featured in the last issue. What has come to 
light since is that Bloomsbury's printing was a trade edition 
and there exist spectacular fine press volumes by Libanus, 
who also did the restoration work on the illustrations. The 
Libanus edition is much larger (320 * 218 mm), letterpress 
and bound in full cloth, and consists of: 60 copies of the 
books and a set of prints (all at the original size of Peake's 
drawings), boxed and numbered (£300 - [sold out]); 120 
standard copies (£150); and 100 sets of the prints (£110) 
and all include a four-page color supplement. Their 
sumptuous edition has the relevant quotations with the 
drawings, not the full text of the book. 

An article in The Times (London), December 12, 2001, 
describes the genesis of the original illustrations, 
immediately following WWII and at a time when Peake was 
in bad emotional shape. Returning to England, he got to know 
the Norton family, who kept a kind of artistic salon in 
bombed-out Chelsea. He often dropped in, talking about his 
projects and delighting 11 -year-old Caroline with his 
storytelling. Realizing that she would be a fine model for 
his Alice, he asked her to sit for him, which she did. 

Fifty-five years later, Michael Mitchell of the Libanus Press 
happened to be sitting next to a lady at a dinner who asked 
him what his press was working on. "Restoring Mervyn 
Peake's Alice drawings," he said. "Oh, I sat for those," she 
replied to his astonishment. For the limited edition she has 
also written a short recollection of Peake, whose "volatile 
face and expressions were a joy to watch". 

Contact the Libanus Press, Rose Tree House, Silverless 
Street, Marlborough, Wiltshire sn8 ijq, U.K.; +1672. 
515378, -511041 fax;. susan@libanuspress.co.uk. 

And by-the-bye, the many textual errors have been corrected 
in the second edition of the Bloomsbury printing. 

Psittaciformes Atramentum 

Polish-born British illustrator Francizka Themerson ran the 
Gaberbochus [L. Jabberwock] Press from 1948 to 1979. 
Her illustrations to TTLG were completed in 1946, but never 
published. Now her niece Jasia Reichardt has rectified that 
by publishing a fine press edition through Inky Parrot Press: 
48 special copies, bound in quarter leather, with six initialed 
and numbered prints, in a slipcase (£168) and 372 ordinary 
copies, signed by Reichardt and Graham Ovenden, £62. Inky 
Parrot Press, The Foundry, Church Hanborough, Witney near 
Oxford ox29 8ab, U.K. +1993.881260; -883080 fax. 





A Blackstone day indeed 

A news story of 28 November, 2001 
described "a temporary export bar" 
from the U.K. on a rare set of 
photographs of Alice Liddell. Arts 
Minister Baroness Tessa Blackstone 
made the order amid fears a foreign collector could whisk 
the glass negatives and photographs, taken by Carroll 
himself, out of the country. The photos were sold at the 
Sotheby's auction in June to an "if not nameless, herein 
unnamed" U.S. collector, who promised to display them at 
Oxford University. However, as foreign buyers have since 
expressed interest in the pictures, a consortium involving 
the National Museum of Photography, Film and Television 
(NMPFT), the National Portrait Gallery, the Museum of 
Oxford and the Victoria & Albert is currently trying to raise 
the £600,000 ($850,000) to repurchase the pictures and 
put them on permanent display at Christ Church. 

As we go to press, the British government has extended the 
export bar until the end of May. 

Politically Correct 

The Pamphlets of Lewis Carroll: Volume III: The Political 
Pamphlets and Letters of Charles L. Dodgson and Related 
Pieces, compiled and edited by Francine F. Abeles, 
published by the L.C.S.N.A. 

Not only does this volume provide the reader with access 
to rare materials, most of which have never previously been 
reprinted, Dr. Abeles' commentary contributes an unparal- 
leled look at Dodgson's involvement in the spheres of 
politics and voting theory. 

The book is divided into four sections, each with its own 
introductory essay. "Fairness in Elections" reprints 
Dodgson's pamphlets on voting procedure. The next section, 
"Rationality in Sports," contains Dodgson's writing on tennis 
tournaments and on betting. In some cases, Dodgson's 
letters to the editor of the St. James s Gazette mention the 
opinions of other correspondents, and Abeles has included 
these other letters as well, giving the reader a complete view 
of Dodgson's work in context and of the response to it. 
"Proportional Representation" also includes letters by his 
contemporaries that respond to and elaborate upon his 
arguments. This section also contains Dodgson's major work 
Principles of Parliamentary Representation. A short 
section of "Political Humor" finishes the book, but previous 
sections are not without their drollery as well. Many of the 
pieces reprinted here show that Dodgson could use his 
Carrollian wit even on a seemingly dry topic. 

Prof. Abeles' general introduction is a serious reconsid- 



13 



eration of Dodgson as a political scientist, considers his 
activism, and puts his theories in the context of the history 
of poli-sci. An outstanding scholarly contribution to the 
fields of Victorian political theory and Carrollian studies, 
this will be an important addition to libraries from the 
largest university to the most modest Lewis Carroll 
enthusiast. 

List Price: $70; Member Price: $55 + shipping @ $2 per 
volume. Send orders to LCSNA c/o Stan Bershod, 58 
Crittendon Way, Rochester, NY 14623. 




Carrollian 

Notes 



Things we wouldn't bank on 

International Money Marketing begins its Dec. 6, 2001 
article on the adventures of Do It Yourself portfolios with 
the following sentence: "Lewis Carroll is most widely known 
for penning the Disney adaptation of his story Alice's 
Adventures in Wonderland, eclipsing his other works..." 

Frankly, My Dear 

Alan Frank in the Daily Star of Jan. 4, 2002, commenting 
on the Disney 1951 "Alice" film says: "The animation is 
inventive, the tuneful songs include 'A Very Merry 
Unbirthday to You' and 'I'm Late' and although the ail- 
American voices aren't exactly what Carroll had in mind, 
the film is delightful." Italics added. That judgment will be 
new to Kathryn Beaumont. 

They sought it with Stegdetect... 

Take a good look. Can you unravel the secret code in this 
picture? 




University of Maryland graduate student Niels Provos and 
other CITI (Center for Information Technology Integration) 
researchers embedded, appropriately enough, the entire first 
Fit of The Hunting of the Snark into this image. Chances 
are you don't see a thing. That's the key to steganography: 
delivering a secret message in an existing image without 
altering the original content. 

It's the stuff spy novels are made of and according to some 
published reports, could be the means of communication 
for many terrorists around the world. 

Steganography, Greek for "hidden writing" {oreyavoypa- 
cpid) from stego (areyco), to conceal, is "the art and science 
of secret communication", says Peter Honeyman, scientific 
director at CITI. It's the ability for people to communicate 
without anyone else knowing that communication is 
taking place. It's different from cryptography, which carries 
an encrypted or coded message. In cryptography, people see 
the means of communication and know the message is taking 
place, but don't know how to decipher it. The whole basis 
of steganography is to conceal that the communication is 
even taking place. 

The digital world has opened the door for this type of coded 
communication, meaning e-mails, CD-ROMS, photos, even 
compressed music files. "Any digital representation of 
information offers an opportunity for steganography," says 
Honeyman. "It doesn't require any special equipment, just 
someone who knows their way around a computer and can 
use a mouse." (Obviously, the picture as prined at right 
contains no hidden messages: only the digital online version 
does!) 

A few extra spaces, dots or dashes to any original program 
or file are all that's needed to create a steganographic mes- 
sage. These additions don't disturb the original content but 
do embed a secret note. A simple computer program can 
break the code. 

"About 10 percent of an image or file can be used to hide a 
message," says Niels Provos. "Beyond that, you run the risk 
of altering the original content. But 10 percent is enough to 
get the word out." For example, a message might be hidden 
within an image by changing the least significant bits to be 
the message bits. 

Spurred by these reports, Provos developed a stega- 
nographic detection framework. He analyzed two million 
images from the Internet auction site eBay using several 
computer tools, including a crawler that downloads images 
from the Web; Stegdetect, which identifies images that might 
contain hidden messages; Stegbreak, which then tries to 
conjure up a key to break the code; and a distributing 
computer framework that runs multiple instances of 
Stegbreak on a cluster of workstations. 
Despite all the hype, Provos came up empty-handed. What 
did you expect, a Boojum? 



14 



Avon Calling 

Charles Lovett 

The mobs of uniformed schoolchildren descending from 
coaches in Stratford should have been enough to warn me 
that the recent production of Alice in Wonderland by the 
Royal Shakespeare Company was intended more for children 
accustomed to Christmas pantomimes than for adult students 
of Mr. Dodgson. Alice is not an inherently dramatic vehicle, 
and for this reason stage versions in general are ultimately 
doomed. Though the book contains some elements of drama, 
in particular the brilliant dialogue between Alice and the 
creatures she encounters, it lacks what Stanislavsky would 
call a "through line of action." The essential elements of 
drama — conflict, plot, and resolution — are missing in Alice, 
and this is part of what makes the book so revolutionary; 
however, Carroll's freeform dream-tale will always be less 
than perfect on the stage. This is not to say that an evening 
with Alice (in this case at the RSC) is an evening wasted. 
There are opportunities for wonderful stage moments here, 
and this new production, dramatized by Adrian Mitchell and 
directed by Rachel Kavanaugh, gives us many such moments. 

The evening begins with Dodgson, Duckworth, and the 
Liddell girls rowing onstage as the Victorian skyline of 
Oxford (no tower on Christ Church Hall, an authentic 1 862 
touch) drifts past. ^Catherine Heath, as Alice, immediately 
establishes her fine ability to take the stage, as well as 
demonstrating a remarkable resemblance to Alice Liddell. 
Here is where the resemblance to actual figures ends, 
however. Daniel Flynn's redheaded Dodgson has all the 
slickness of a used car salesman — more R T Barnum than 
C.L. Dodgson. 

Alice's fall down the rabbit-hole, in which she spends part 
of her time wonderfully sprawled in a wing chair that sways 
to and fro a few yards above the stage, was remarkably 
rendered, as were a number of other effects. Her growing 
and shrinking were accomplished by flashing across the stage 
a series of doors of different heights — simple but effective. 

The musical numbers, by Terry Davies and Stephen Warbeck, 
were remarkably forgettable, the exception being the setting 
of "All in the Golden Afternoon," which was memorable 
not for being good, but simply for being better than the rest 
of the score. Especially ill-conceived was a Music Hall 
rendition of "Father William" in which the third line of each 
verse (where the joke usually appears) was sung to a 
completely different (and much faster) rhythm from the rest 
of the song. Such experimentation may have its place, but 
not in a production meant to appeal to children. The audience 
sat silent throughout the number, as no one could understand 
the funny bits. 

A similar digression, the Tweedles' recitation of "The 
Walrus and The Carpenter" was, in contrast, one of the 
highlights of the show. The Oysters were presented as 
puppets, the Walrus and the Carpenter as wonderfully sly 
and comic, and the rarely heard extra verses written by 
Dodgson for the 1886 stage version of Alice were included. 



Act I ended rather abruptly with Alice waking up not on the 
riverbank where she had fallen asleep, but in the chair by 
the fireplace with snow falling outside. To be sure this 
prepared us for going through the looking-glass in Act 2, 
but we were left wondering what happened to the river. At 
the end of Act 2 we returned to the riverbank — perhaps it 
was all a single dream. 

In his notes in the programme, Adrian Mitchell says that he 
"wrote this play" to please seven children he loved, but to 
call him the author would be a gross exaggeration. He sticks 
largely to Dodgson's words, for which he should be thanked, 
and the few jokes of his own he throws in only serve to 
show how perfect Dodgson's own humor was. Though many 
scenes are necessarily omitted, Mitchell sticks to the proper 
progression of episodes, and does not mix characters from 
the two books — a refreshing change from so many hodge- 
podge productions created by those who seem to think that, 
because there is no dramatic structure to the works, the 
episodes can be presented in any order. 

Reign on My Parade 

Congratulations to FTD, Inc., whose Alician float "The 
Wonderland of Imagination" won the President's Award for 
the Best Overall Floral Display at the 2002 Rose Parade. 
Some pictures can be found at www.ftdi.com/pr/float.htm. 




"Alice's hair is fixed with individual strands of raffia, 
while walnut shell, cornmeal, and paprika will blend 
together to make her skin. Alice's friend, the spectacular 
caterpillar, came to life with orchid carnations and 
Madame Pompadour, while orchid florets carefully 
accent the yellow button chrysanthemums. The White 
Rabbit found himself escorted down the parade route 
with fur made of white carnations and shredded coconut 
flakes. 

Also, around Alice and friends, you'll see mushrooms 
made of natural lunaria pods, dehydrated oranges, limes 
and lemons with spots of solid hot pink Preve 
roses,oversized Canterbury Bells of yellow strawflower 
petals and sculptured thistles, consisting of over 7,000 
stems of liatris which sit amid old-fashioned English 
country gardens of delphiniums, snapdragons, larkspur, 
peony, lilies and cabbage roses. Of course the entire float 



15 



has more than 30,000 flowers of 14 varieties 
intermingled throughout the gardens, while rambling 
rose vines complete the gardens in this whimsical 
storybook setting." 

A propos de rien, the National Geographic for June 1954 
has a photo of that year's Alice float in that year's 
Tournament of Roses parade. 

The Grinning Cheshire Cat: But this puss was no Lewis 
Carroll creation 

Mark Be van 

Reprinted in full with the kind permission of "The 
Cheshire Magazine" at www.cheshiremagazine.com/. 

"It vanished quite slowly, beginning with the end of the tail, 
and ending with the grin, which remained some time after 
the rest of it had gone." 

Lewis Carroll did not invent the enigmatic Cheshire Cat. 
Sorry! Please don't feel disillusioned, for the truth of the 
origin of the Cheshire Cat pays a greater tribute to the 
scholarship of the Rev. Charles Lutwidge Dodgson than to 
the imagination of his alter ego, the children's writer. 

Born in 1 832, Charles grew up in what was then the isolated 
small country village of Daresbury, where his father began 
his career as curate. The elder Dodgson was himself no mean 
scholar, becoming in later life Archdeacon of Richmond 
and a Canon of Ripon. 

As the eldest son of a family of eleven, Charles showed an 
early aptitude for amusing small children. He devised games, 
and edited a series of family magazines to which all his 
brothers and sisters were expected to contribute. 

Painfully shy, with a stammer, deaf in one ear, and with few 
friends outside his family, the young Dodgson was a 
voracious reader and academically brilliant. 

Picture this quiet, studious, but fun-loving boy devouring 
the ancient books in his father's library. Was it here that he 
first became familiar with the tale of the disappearing 
Cheshire Cat? 

The story begins with the eleventh century Earl of Chester, 
Hugh Lupus, a nephew of William the Conqueror, Hugh 'the 
Wolf, a very big man, was also known as Hugh 'the fat'. 

Hugh Lupus bore as his coat of arms a wolf's head, jaws 
open and teeth bared. He had this symbol of authority, given 
to him by his royal uncle as a reward for his services, 



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displayed all over the conquered Cheshire countryside. 

Medieval provincial artists had a somewhat primitive 
drawing technique, and his noble emblem soon debased to a 
pale imitation of the original. The snarl of the wolf began to 
resemble a grin. Defeated Saxon peasants were quick to call 
their new master's badge 'Fat Hugh's Cat.' 

Fat Hugh the Wolf had no son. Both his Cheshire estates 
and the family tendency to obesity were inherited by his 
nephew Gilbert, also known by a nickname - Le Gros 
Veneur, 'the Fat Hunter'. 

Gilbert Le Grosvenor took as his arms the devise azure a 
bend or. That is a gold diagonal stripe on a blue background, 
a fairly simple badge, as were most early examples of 
heraldry. It was quite common then for two or more families 
to have very similar coats of arms but, providing they lived 
some distance from each other, no confusion would arise. 

As heraldry became more complicated and more people 
became entitled to display their own devices the system was 
formalised and regulated by the Court of Chivalry. 

It was in 1389 that Sir Robert Grosvenor of Hulme fell foul 
of the Court of Chivalry when Sir Richard Scrope, Baron of 
Bolton, won the exclusive rights to the arms azure a bend 
or. The Grosvenors were required to find an alternative. 

"I have just the thing," says Sir Robert (or words to that 
effect). "I shall take as my arms those of my illustrious 
ancestors the Earls of Chester, the Grasvenor family." 

Spelling, you will notice, was another medieval art still to 
be perfected. 

Indeed that is what Sir Robert did. He took as his arms the 
golden wheatsheaf, not the wolf's head, 'Fat Hugh's Cat'. 

And so it was, because our ancestors could neither draw 
nor spell, the embodied grin of the Cheshire cat finally, 
accidentally, disappeared 600 years ago. 

A Godley Crew 

The following is a letter to the editor of the Times Literary 
Supplement which appeared in the June '01 issue, and is 
reprinted with the kind permission of its author. 

Sir, — Pauline Hunter Blair's article ("The Baker's tale", 
March 2) on a possible source for The Hunting of the Snark, 
and for the Walrus in Through the Looking-Glass, by Lewis 
Carroll, is entirely plausible [reported in KL 66, p.21]. The 
young Charles Lutwidge Dodgson would surely have known 



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16 



about the career of his distant uncle Admiral Skeffington 
Lutwidge — a portrait of whom by the American painter 
Gilbert Stuart ( 1 755- 1 828) hangs in the Ponce Art Museum, 
Puerto Rico — and may very well have examined papers or 
a log of his illustrious forebear's Arctic voyage. It is 
unlikely, however, that Carroll published Lieutenant Floyd's 
log of the voyage, as Ms Hunter Blair suggests he might 
have done. We have no record in Carroll's diaries or letters 
of such a publication, and it was not Carroll's practice to 
conceal any serious publication he was involved in. 

Other influences on The Hunting of the Snark, moreover, 
present themselves, and Mavis Batey called a likely one to 
my attention recently. This tale begins with John Robert 
Godley, born in Ireland in 1814 and educated at Harrow and 
Christ Church, Oxford. Early on he became interested in 
colonial emigration and, during his Oxford years, dreamed 
of establishing a colonial settlement based not on refugee 
or convict labour but on a plan for a community of emigrants 
with developed skills and a strong Anglican motivation. 
Creating a college was an integral part of the scheme. Later, 
together with another expert on colonial emigration, Edward 
Gibbon Wakefield, he did in fact establish and, for a number 
of years, ran a Church of England settlement for emigrants 
at New Canterbury in New Zealand. He named the New 
Canterbury settlement Christ Church, after his Oxford 
college. The Canterbury Association, the name taken by the 
organization backing the venture, enlisted fifty-three 
distinguished persons to support the project, thirty from 
Oxford, no fewer than seventeen of them from Christ 
Church. Among them was Charles Thomas Longley, Bishop 
of Ripon, an old friend and fellow student of Lewis Carroll's 
father, then serving as examining chaplain to Longley. 

On July 30, 1850, the Canterbury Association gave a 
breakfast, celebrating the Canterbury Pilgrims, as the 
emigrants were called, aboard the Randolph, one of the ships 
they would sail on, at East India Dock, Blackwall. The 
breakfast was attended by "from 200 to 300 ladies and 
gentlemen", and the "London Tavern" and the Coldstream 
Guards provided "elegant entertainment", which was 
followed by "speeches full of hope and promise". 

On September 1, an "immense body of persons" attended a 
special service at St Paul's Cathedral in honour of the 
Pilgrims and heard a sermon by the Archbishop of 
Canterbury. Two days later, the Association gave a leave- 
taking dinner at Gravesend, and on the following day, "at 
about half-past six o'clock" in the morning, the colonists 
set sail on their perilous journey from Plymouth. 

The Pilgrims included a well-known Oxford printer, twenty 
teachers, a surveyor, carpenters, farmers, mechanics, 
dressmakers, "graduates", a bishop designate and healthy 
labourers. The ships they sailed carried the elements of a 
college, the contents of a public library, the machinery for 
a bank and plans for a constitutional government. The 
settlement was established, flourished; within a year it had 



its own newspaper and could boast a visit from the Dean of 
Christ Church, Oxford, who went out to celebrate the 
successful founding and progress of the settlement (The 
Times, July 31, September 2, 3 and 5, 1850). 

Three and a half months before the pilgrims left England, 
on May 23, Lewis Carroll, aged eighteen, matriculated at 
Christ Church, Oxford. In 1873, the year before he wrote 
The Hunting of the Snark, he was serving on the Governing 
Body of his college when it celebrated the completion of a 
cathedral college at New Canterbury. It is surely not far- 
fetched to believe that the reports of this remarkable group 
and their journey to New Zealand contributed something to 
Carroll's eccentric crew and the voyage to Snarkland. 

Sources and influences are elusive birds, seldom amenable 
to capture. Both Pauline Hunter Blair's Arctic voyage and 
the New Zealand Pilgrims very possibly played their part in 
shaping the Snark. But we can be no more certain of the 
true sources of the longest nonsense poem in the English 
language than we can be of that last line that popped into 
Carroll's mind as he walked over the Surrey Downs. For the 
Snark was a Boojum. You see? 

Morton N. Cohen 

For further information, see an "Overview of the 
Canterbury Settlement, Colonists, Emigrants and the 
Canterbury Association 's First Four Ships ", which can 
be found at www.tp2000.org.nz/groups/heritage/ 
1 50th Celebrations/Overview, htm. 









&mmm 



Nothing is yet cast in stone/ but it looks as if 

our Fall 2002 meeting will be in "Everybody's 

Favorite City", San Francisco, and will 

feature a visit to SFMoMA where the 

"Symbolic Logic: The Photographs of 

Lewis Carroll" exhibit will be on. 

The curator, Doug Nickel, will also be 

one of our speakers. 




17 



Ravings from the Writing Desk 
Of Stephanie Lovett 

The LCSNA has never had a home of its own. Our mailing 
address has always been the home of the then-current 
secretary, and though we have looked into having a permanent 
address, it seems that would cause more problems than it 
would solve. These days we can be said to live at 
www.lewiscarroll.org, which has been wonderful for routing 
news and information, and has made it much easier for the 
rest of the world to contact us. Still, we do also exist as an 
organization in three dimensions — our members, our books, 
our Knight Letters, and all the artifacts of our 28 years. As 
a group of members, the organization might be said to flicker 
into existence like Brigadoon twice a year. As a legacy of 
publications, files, and artifacts, though, the LCSNA lives 
in attics, file cabinets, bookshelves, and various dusty 
corners all over the world. 

Now, however, we have a home, a landmark development 
for the LCSNA. It's not an office for doing the business of 
the society — that will always be the desks of the many 
officers, editors, and chairpersons who give so much of their 
time. It will be a place you can actually visit, though, which 
is part of the point. New York University (downtown) has 
agreed to accept our archives and to accession, catalogue, 
and store them. Thanks to the efforts of August Imholtz, the 
records of our business, copies of our publications, 
correspondence, and documents from our various doings 
will no longer be scattered, incognito and inaccessible, but 
will be catalogued and available for anyone to use. As was 
the case with our twentieth-anniversary booklet of 1999, 
this is an ideal time in the life of the Society to capture 
these things, before so much time has passed that they 
become irretrievable, lost among people's personal papers. 
Once the archive is established, we will have a precedent 
for what to keep track of and add in the future. 

August will be soliciting those he thinks might have the 
necessary papers and so on languishing in their files and 
under their beds, but our archives will be all the more 
comprehensive if all of the membership will pause in their 
spring cleaning to rummage in the backs of desk drawers 
and look for things that represent important doings of the 
LCSNA, such as correspondence about the development of 
a publication, drafts of documents, letters to and from 
speakers at meetings, and so on. Contact August 
(imholtz99@atlantech.net) about your materials, and with 
questions about what is suitable for the archives. NYU has 
been a gracious host to us for meetings and private research 
in the Berol Collection, and Fales Librarian Marvin Taylor 
has been most welcoming and supportive of this effort. 

The other candidate for being thought of as the home of the 
LCSNA is Princeton University, because it was there that 
the society had its founding meeting in 1974. We have 
returned several times since, including our tenth- and 
twentieth-anniversary meetings. I hope that you will all give 
consideration to joining us in Princeton this April 13 th for 



the Spring meeting, when we will hearing from a composer 
inspired by Memoria Technica, at least one distinguished 
scholar, and the team at Princeton University Press who just 
produced Lewis Carroll: Photographer. You will enjoy 
seeing the town and campus, and you will be present for the 
donation of a rare book from the LCSNA to the Parrish 
Collection in honor of our longtime friend there, the late 
Alexander Wainwright. Since our last visit there in 1994, 
the Firestone Library now also houses the Cotsen Children's 
Library, and curator Andrea Immel, who has been our host 
in arranging this meeting, will be bringing our day in 
Princeton to a close with a reception for us. All in all, a day 
for remembering old friends along Memory Lane, and for 
learning new things and making new Princetonian friends. 



Serendipity 

Lo, like a Cheshire cat our court will grin. 

Peter Pindar 
Pair of Lyric Epistles (1795) 

Where other trav'lers, fraught with terror, 

roam 
Lo! Bruce in Wonder-land is quite at home. 

ditto 
"Complete Epistle" to James Bruce (1812) 

[The satirist John Wolcott (1 738-1819) wrote under the 
nom de plume of Peter Pindar. James Bruce (1730-1794) 
of Kinnaird was known for his sojourns in Abyssinia.] 

For it is here that Fantasy with her mystic 
wonderland plays into the small prose 
domain of Sense, and becomes incorporated 
therewith. 

Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881) 

Sartor Resartus: The Life and Opinions of 

Herr Teufelsdrockh(l83l) 

I always thought even as a child that 
Wonderland and Looking-Glass Land were not 
the same place but neighbouring kingdoms 
which share a common boarder. 

Deborah Caputo 
in the Yahoo Lewis Carroll eGroup 

[Though unintentionally "uttered", Deb has shown her 
customary sense of humour in allowing us to reprint it.] 



18 



From Dor rat c -fiom<}< 



Books 

Great Comic Cats (revised edition) by 
Malcolm Whyte, Pomegranate Press, 
contains several chapters on Victorian 
book and magazine illustrations, and 
features Cheshire Puss prominently. 0- 
7649-1737-4. $25 paper; $45 signed 
limited edition hardcover, available at 
www.word-play.com/books/cats.html. 

The distinguished Dutch translator and 
critic Nicolaas Matsier has published 
Journaal van een reis naar Rusland 
in 1867, the first Dutch translation of 
CLD's journal of his trip to Russia. 
Hoogland & Van Klaveren. 90 76347 
1 31. 

Another Dutch Snark has just appeared 
in print: Henri Ruizenaar, De jacht op 
de Snark: Een doodsstrijd in 8 stuip- 
trekkingen. Includes annotations by 
Mr. Ruizenaar and illustrations by Jan 
te Wierik. 90 76837 03 1. 

Markus Lang's Finnish Carroll 
anthology Kirjeitd lapsiystdville ja 
muita kirjoituksia, EUR 6. Unusual 
material: letters, the Russian journal, 
etc. Contact the publisher, loki- 
kirjat@lokikirjat.com; www.lokikirjat. 
com/carrkirj.html. 

What seems at first an odd idea, Stamp- 
ing Through Mathematics: An Illus- 
trated History of Mathematics 
Through Stamps by Robin J. Wilson 
(Springer, 2001), 0387989 498, takes 
its name from Ernest Rutherford's 
quotation "All science is either physics 
or stamp collecting". The chapter on 
"The Liberation of Algebra" mentions 
Dodgson's contribution and displays 
the Mali postage stamp. Apparently the 
pairing is not such an unpopular one: 
Philomath: A Journal of Mathe- 
matical Philately is published 
quarterly by a society devoted to the 
cause! See www.math.ttu.edu/msu/ 
generalinfo.html. 

Lisbeth Zwerger's illustrated The 
Wizard ofOz and Alice in Wonderland 
have been combined into a boxed set. 
$30. North South Books; 0735813426. 
Regrettable. 




Corregponclenfe 



Quotable Alice, compiled and edited 
by David W. Barber, Quotable Books 
(Canada), $15 paperback. A 
compendium of the best-known lines 
from the canon. 0-920151-52-3. 

Into the Looking-Glass Wood: Essays 
on books, reading, and the world by 
Alberto Manguel, Harcourt, 0-15- 
601265-0. A collection of articles 
with all-Alician chapter-heading 
quotes, but mainly of interest is the title 
essay, on his experiences reading and 
re-reading the Alice books. 

Byron Sewell's latest publication 
Alina's Adventures under the Land of 
Enchantment, Storkling Press, 2001, 
"a Christmas fable... equally derived 
from A W and another story I wrote a 
number of years ago, entitled 
Tucumcari [NM] Dreams. The latter 
was a fanciful retelling of family 
history and legend." Available only on 
floppy disk, with permission to print 
two hardcopies. 

R.J. Trudeau in his book The Non- 
Euclidean Revolution, 1987, reprin- 
ted by Birkhauser, 2001, includes and 
comments on work by Lewis Carroll. 
"Trudeau's assessments are very 
positive." ~ Fran Abeles. 

Alice in Blunderland by Scott Adams 
is a miniature book of Dilbert cartoons 
featuring Alice, who works in his 
office. Andrews and McMeel. $5. 
0836274792. 

Understanding 'Alice', from the 
minimag press, $1, 814 Robinson 
Road, Topanga CA 90290. 

Sarah Ellis' From Reader to Writer: 
Teaching Writing Through Classic 
Children s Books, Groundwood, 200 1 . 
'"...Librarians will be thrilled with the 
connections that can be made from the 
books cited and unique ways to 
introduce their authors' including 
Lewis Carroll. I'm ordering this for the 
Arne Nixon Center." ~ Angelica 
Carpenter. $15. 0888994400. 
19 



Dr. B. Ekbal, Professor of Neuro- 
surgery and Vice-Chancellor of Kerala 
University in India, is writing a book 
on migraine in literature in which he 
devotes a chapter to "Alice's growing, 
shrinking, and finding distorted body 
parts — all classic symptoms of non- 
classic migraine." 

Jostein Gaarder's 1997 bestseller 
Sophia's World, A Novel About the 
History of Philosophy, tr. from the 
Norwegian by Paulette Moller, was 
described by Time as "a modern TTLG" 
and she literally (literarily?) visits 
Alice et al. in the chapter devoted to 
Soren Kierkegaard. 

Monica Edinger noted several books 
for younger readers involving 
productions of AW plays: the series 
"The Kids in Ms. Colman's Class" by 
Ann M. Martin contains #3 Class Play 
(1996); her series "The Baby-Sitters 
Club" has #121 Abby in Wonderland 
(1998); also Alice Whipple in 
Wonderland (1989) by Laurie Adams 
and Allison Coudert. 

Uncle Albert and the Quantum Quest 
by Russell Stannard (1994) In the third 
installment of this series explaining 
physics to 10-15 year olds, Uncle 
Albert (loosely, Einstein) transports 
his niece Gedanken via a Thought 
Bubble into a quantum Wonderland 
where Alice and the White Rabbit set 
her straight. Faber & Faber, 057117 
3446. 

Who Betrays Elizabeth Bennet? by 
John Sutherland, Oxford University 
Press (0-19-283884-9) contains a set 
of 34 puzzles regarding details in 
classic 19* century novels, including 
the title mystery (from Pride and 
Prejudice) and "How long is Alice in 
Wonderland for?", in which she 
believes (owing to clues about seasonal 
changes) that Alice has actually slept 
some three months into autumn and 
wakened an adolescent instead of the 
child who went to sleep. ~ Ruth Berman 

In the latest work published by Yale 
polymath Professor Harold Bloom, 
Stories and Poems for Extremely 



Intelligent Children (Scribner, 
$27.50), Lewis Carroll has the largest 
number of selections, eight, of any 
single author. Furthermore, Harold's 
latest crusade is against J.K. Rowling's 
Harry Potter novels in favor of 
literature like Alice. See also the item 
in Media, below. 

Kirsten Boie's Der durch den Spiegel 
kommt, published by Otinger, Hamburg, 
presents a new Looking-Glass-based 
narrative of a girl who goes through a 
mirror to new, somewhat unsettling 
adventures. For children. 3789131458. 

Articles 

Nina M. Demurova's brilliant article 
"On the Degrees of Freedom: 
Translations of Lewis Carroll's Poem 
The Hunting of the Snark" [title 
translated from the Russian] appears in 
AjibManax nepeeodnuxa (Almanach 
Perevodchika) Moscow: Russian State 
Humanistic University, 2001. 5-7281- 
0306-5. She compares several trans- 
lators' versions of identical Snark 
passages and astutely evaluates their 
success, www.mkniga.msk.su/nk/nk99- 
12.htm. 

The Lion and the Unicorn, Vol. 15 No. 
3, September '01, reviews Robin 
Allan's Walt Disney and Europe, 
Joseph Zornado's Inventing the Child, 
and Bjorn Sundmark's Alice's 
Adventures in the Oral-Literary 
Continuum, all of which feature AW. 

The New York Times, 30 September '01 
"From a Child of Tradition, A New Ap- 
proach to Ibsen" discusses actress Kate 
Burton's life and work, including her 
AW on Broadway with her father, 
Richard. 

In Paper Collectors ' Marketplace, 
January '02, Vol. 20 No.l, the cover 
feature "The Remarkable World of 
AW reviews the collectibles, sou- 
venirs, novelties, "momentos" [sic], 
ephemera, and memorabilia associated 
with the works. 

The October issue of Book Source 
Monthly has a rarely reproduced 
photograph of Alice, Ina and Edith on 
the cover. The picture is often 
attributed to CLD, but may not be his 
work. 



"Welcome to Wonderland: From Alice 
to Scarlett O'Hara, millions of 
masterpieces reside at UT" in the 
Austin [TX] American-Statesman, 
February 17, 2002, the first of a three 
installments discussing the Harry 
Ransom Center at U.T.Austin, opens 
with our own Alan Tannenbaum lusting 
after the "India Alice". 

Narrative Analysis of a Fairy Tale in 
Application to Relational Psycho- 
therapy: A Critical Review is a fairly 
recent, 2000, dissertation by Cheryl 
Ann Raczynski in which she analyzes 
AW and several other texts according 
to narrative analysis theory, narrative 
therapy approach, and narrative- 
constructionist theory. The therapist, 
she argues, through use of the 
metaphorical, allegorical, or analog- 
ical, can pierce defenses and explore 
patterns problematic to the clients. The 
therapist thus becomes a co-con- 
structor fashioning a more helpful 
version of reality. Like Wonderland. 

"Sindrome de Alicia en el Pais de las 
Maravillas asociado a infeccion por 
el virus de Epstein-Barr" (AW syn- 
drome due to Epstein-Barr) by C. 
Perez Mendez et al. in Anales Espah- 
oles de Pediatrica, June 2001, vol. 54, 
no. 6, recommends that children pre- 
senting a clinical picture consistent 
with the syndrome should undergo 
serological testing for Epstein-Barr 
virus infection. 

Katie Roiphe, defending her depiction 
of Carroll in her novel Still She Haunts 
Me, says in The Guardian, Oct. 29, 
2001, says that "there is a nobility in 
(Carroll's) self-restraint so forceful 
that it spews out stuttering tortoises and 
talking chess pieces." One perhaps 
wishes there had been a bit more 
restraint in her novel. Online at http:// 
books.guardian.co.uk/departments/ 
classics/story/0, 6000, 582828, 00. 
html. According to a Nov. 4, 2001 
report in the Providence Journal-Bul- 
letin, it was while teaching Victorian 
children's literature at Princeton that 
Roiphe became interested in Dodg- 
son's complicated relationship with 
Alice Liddell. Parrish the thought. 



20 



A fascinating article bringing modern 
mathematical thinking to bear on one 
of Carroll's problems is "Lewis 
Carroll's Obtuse Problem" by R. Falk 
and E. Samuel-Cahn in Teaching 
Statistics, 2001, vol. 23, no. 3. Not for 
the obtuse. 

Sanjay Sircar reviews Ronald 
Reichertz's The Making of the Alice 
Books: Lewis Carroll's Uses of 
Earlier Children 's Literature in the 
Children's Literature Association 
Quarterly, 2001, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 
101-103. In the same issue, Jan Susina 
offers a new construction to the 
famous riddle in his article "Why Is a 
Raven Like a Writing-Desk? : The Play 
of Letters in Lewis Carroll's Alice 
Books". 

Carolyn Sigler reviews the biographies 
of Lewis Carroll in her article "Was the 
Snark a Boojum: One Hundred Years 
of Lewis Carroll Biographies" in 
Children's Literature, 2001, vol. 29. 

An attempt to place Carroll's classic 
work in the tradition of the search for 
a lost paradise is made by H. Graf in 
iil Hier sind alle verruckV: Lewis 
Carroll oder die Suche nach dem 
verlorenen Parodies" in Merkur, 

2000, vol. 54, no. 12. 

In a long article in The Guardian, Nov. 
30, 2001, British critic Francis 
Spofford picks the ten best children's 
stories ever written. The two Alice 
books together come in second after 
E. Nesbit's The Story of the Amulet. 
Why second place? Spofford says "The 
idea of childhood here is dead as a 
doornail, the disquieting undertones are 
quite real, and the parody poems have 
all outlasted their originals. But still 
Alice's adventures transport readers as 
no other books can to the strange 
borderland where logic and dream 
meet, and leave minds altered, 
stretched, enlarged and stocked forever 
with our culture's touchstone moments 
of surrealism." 

The "Grammar Lady" column of the 
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, Nov. 30, 

2001, on "portmanteau words" has the 
following observation: "portmanteau 
words, a term coined by ^-century 



mathematician and author of children's 
books Lewis Carroll. He has Humpty 
Dumpty defined as 'two words in one 
bag.'" [sic. Humpty may be portly but 
hardly a portmanteau, unless of 
course he wanted to be one. ] 

A profile in the San Francisco 
Chronicle, March 8, 2002, of "The 
Mad Hatter", who makes those up-to- 
eleven-foot-tall hats for the long- 
running hit show "Beach Blanket 
Babylon" and also collects hats, 
reveals his real name to be. ..Alan 
Greenspan. Which might explain the 
present state of the economy. 

The Rev. David Stuart-Smith claims in 
The Times of Dec. 1, 2001, that John 
Bunyan's Pilgrim 's Progress rather 
than AW is the most widely translated 
work after the Bible and Shakespeare. 
The Bunyan Museum in Bedford holds 
translations in 167 different languages. 
How many are still read, we wonder? 

Cyberspace 

"Casebook: Jack the Ripper" lists CLD 
as a suspect, www.casebook.org/ 
suspects/carroll.html. "In fact all 
Wallace really succeeds in demon- 
strating is that Dodgson used the same 
alphabet as everyone else in the western 
world, and that, therefore, his words 
can be rearranged to make other words 
- including rather rude ones about 
ripping ladies open." Meanwhile, best- 
selling crime novelist Patricia 
Cornwall has been promoting her new 
theory that Jack the Ripper was not 
CLD, but rather the German-born 
British painter Walter Sickert (1860- 
1 942). http://books.guardian.co.uk/ 
news/articles/0,6 1 09,6 1 5448,00.html. 

Jim Buch at www.angelfire.com/art2/ 
wonderland has some nice freeware — 
Alice screensavers and wallpaper, 
mostly Tenniel-based, but some rather 
different — and, for sale, personalized 
hardbound Tenniel-illustrated editions 
of AW. "Personalized" means you can 
get your edition of Lucy's Adventures 
in Wonderland based on the name of a 
girl. Accessible from the above or 
www.youralicebook.com. 



Lauren Harman's fine site on the illus- 
trators (over 100!) has moved again: 
http://laurenharman.tripod.com/alice. 

Deke Rivers, a rather unmannerly 
plonker, has put up "The World's Big- 
gest AW Site" at http://groups. yahoo, 
com/group/alicewonderland/. 

There's a site devoted to soup, with our 
hero quoted on the home page and a 
recipe for Mock Turtle Soup at www. 
soupsong.com. 

"'Alice' is a functional programming 
language based on Standard ML, 
extended with support for concurrent, 
distributed, and constraint program- 
ming... 'Alice' programs can therefore 
interoperate with Oz." www.ps.uni- 
sb.de/alice/. 

A new online encyclopedia, which is 
composed of reader submissions of 
material — editable and expandable by 
anyone — called Wikipedia (www. 
wikipedia.com). You might want to 
correct or expand the CLD entries. 

Karoline Leach's article "The Real 
Scandal: Lewis Carroll's Friendships 
with Adult Women" published in the 
(London) Times Literary Supplement 
on 7 Feb '02. 

Angelica Carpenter's home page at http: 
//zimmer. csufresno.edu/~angelica/ 
discusses her forthcoming bio of 
Carroll for children. 

"The Snarking of the Hunt" by George 
Kenealy at www.snarking.co.uk is "a 
mathematical diversion for all who 
delight in problem-solving!" 

A bunch of nekkid hippies cavorting on 
the Alice statue in Central Park in 
1968, a photo by Yayoi Kusama, at 
www.bombsite.com/archive/kusama/ 
portfolio/image 1 8.htm. 

www.concordance.com/carroll.htm 
contains searchable concordances of 
AW and TTLG, as well as "Lewis 
Carroll's Commentary on Victorian 
English Society: Alice, Anti-Hero on 
a Failed Quest" by Rachel Lawton. Also 
fun stuff: the top 100 words by 
frequency (A W: SAID, ALICE, VERY, LITTLE, 
OUT, DOWN, UP, ABOUT, KNOW, LIKE, WENT, 
HERSELF, AGAIN, THOUGHT, OFF, TIME,. . .); 
a thesaurus, completion words, etc. 



Gilbert Heatherwick's "Dreams for 
Alice" musical and CD [KL 63, p.2] has 
a website at www.gilberthetherwick. 
com/alice.php. 

Need to know how to fold a "press hat" 
(such as the Carpenter's) out of a 
newspaper? See the Minnesota News- 
paper Museum at www.mnnewspaper 
net.org/MNFMuseum/presshat.htm. 

Our webmaster Joel Birenbaum has 
seeded the "Lewis Carroll and His 
Religion" site on the LC Home Page 
(www.lewiscarroll.org/carroll.html) 
with a subset of comments made by 
persons on the Yahoo eGroup "Lewis 
Carroll" list, and some helpful links. 

William Osborne's Alice Through the 
Looking-Glass, a "family opera for 
chamber orchestra and singers" at 
www.osborne-conant.org/alice.htm. 

A "moving" version of a verse from the 
"Walrus & Carpenter" at www.home. 
zonnet.nl/AAvanZwol/walrus/towalrus. 
htm# plays visual games with the text 
and has a sonic background of a 
seashore. 

An unabridged, dramatic audio 
production of AW in RealAudio™ from 
Ohio U, featuring the "Wired for 
Books Players" at http://wiredfor 
books.org/alice/. 

An invisible Red Queen and God as a 
donut: http://users.erinet.com/355 1 II 
jqueen.htm. 

A list of Japanese books inspired by 
Lewis Carroll: www.hp-alice.com/lce/ 
alicebook.html. In English. 

"Lemmawocky" at www.jaworski.co. 
uk/m 13/ 13_lemmawocky.html seems 
to be proving something. But what? 

A bookplate for the Cleveland Public 
Library's LC room was designed by 
Paul Kucharyson under the WPA: 
www.cwru.edu/UL/preserve/WPA/ 
KuchBookAl.htm. 

A fine portal for Disney's "Alice 
Comedies" with valuable links on the 
subject: www.multiliteracy.com/ 
persist/28. html. 

An Aussie gal's collection is on view 
at http://alicedu.tripod.com/. 



21 



Portuguese ceramicist Elisabete 
Gomes fine AW and other work for 
Disney at www.the-magic-carpet.net/ 
gomes/. 

Lore Fitzgerald Sjoberg has humor- 
ously rated all the Alice characters at 
www.brunching.com/ratings/rate- 
alice.html. 

If you remember "MadLibs" you might 
enjoy the Alice "CrazyLib" at http:// 
rinkworks.eom/crazylibs/c/c3.shtml. 

A gorgeous guitar with over 80 inlays 
of the Alice characters at www.bloom 
ington.in.us/~wolfie/alice.html. 

Anyone seeking a nice simple expla- 
nation of the solution of the "Red Shift 
Code" (KL 56 p. 8-9) can see one at 
http://members.ozemail.com.au/~xeno 
phon/code.html. 

"Advice from an Arthropod", a fantas- 
tic sand sculpture http://indigo.ie/~am 
monite/Advice.htm. 

An art exhibition "Alice in Wild Land" 
by Israeli liana Raviv at www.israelart 
guide.co.il/raviv/exhibition/invita 
tionl.html. 

Media 

National Public Radio's Renee Mon- 
tagne talked with Harold Bloom about 
his new book Stories and Poems for 
Extremely Intelligent Children of All 
Ages, on December 27th, '01 and 
discussed AW. You can get a cassette 
or transcript from www.npr.org. 

Antiques Roadshow UK broadcast on 
Oct. 6 (show #101) was from the 
Victoria and Albert Museum and was 
reputed to have some CLD letters. 

Aerosmith's recent video for the song 
"Sunshine" uses an AW theme. 

The NBC show "Providence" which 
aired on May 12, 2000 was called "Syd 
in Wonderland" and made good on its 
title. 

North Korea, on its state-run Central 
Broadcasting Station, began showing 
for the first time a series of cartoons 
from the West. On Oct. 27, 2001, the 
series began with the Disney AW. The 
Korea Times in the South observed on 
Nov. 6 that "it is not known via which 



channel North Korea imported the 
rights to air the books." 

The American Museum of the Moving 
Image, located in Queens, New York, 
presented a series of Alice films Dec. 
22-3 1 , 200 1 . Beginning with the 1 933 
Paramount AW, the series included: 
Disney's 1923-26 Alice cartoons - 
"Alice's Wonderland," "Alice Gets 
Stung," "Alice's Fishy Story," "Alice's 
Wild West Show," "Alice's Spooky 
Adventure," "Alice's Mysterious 
Mystery," "Alice Stage Struck," and 
"Alice Chops the Suey", all of which, 
in the words of the program announce- 
ment, were "more inspired by rival 
animators Max Fleischer and Otto 
Mesmer than by Lewis Carroll". Both 
1951 films, the Lou Bunin and the 
Disney, were also shown as were the 
Svankmajer and "Dreamchild." Your 
present KL editor was quoted in a New 
York Times article on Dec. 9, 2001 on 
the then-upcoming film festival. 

Performances Noted 

The Lantern Theatre Company of 
Philadelphia performed a new 
interpretation of TTLG at St. Stephen's 
Theater, Oct. 1 2 through Nov. 1 1 , 200 1 , 
adapted for the stage and directed by 
Dugald MacArthur. 

American composer Lorraine 
Levender Whittlesey's intriguing com- 
position on Lewis Carroll's "Memoria 
Technica" was performed at Goucher 
College in Baltimore, Maryland, on 
Nov. 5,2001. 

A performance of "Jabberwocky" 
opened the holiday season on Nov. 23, 
2001, in Hartford, Connecticut. 

The Marriott Theatre for Young 
Audiences presented a lavish new 
adaptation of AW with music and lyrics 
by Dyanne Early and Phil Orem, in Lin- 
colnshire IL, Nov. 28 through Dec. 29, 
2001. 

Southeastern Louisiana University's 
Department of Music and Dramatic 
Arts presented AW in early December, 
200 1 , in an adaptation by Anne Coulter 
Martens. 

The Young Men's and Young Women's 
Hebrew Association of North Jersey 

22 



presented in Bergen, New Jersey on 
Dec. 16, 2001, a musical adaptation of 
Alice called "Winter Wonderland" in 
which a modern-day Alice cannot 
accept the fact that some of her friends 
celebrate other holidays such as 
Hanukkah and Kwaanza. 

Puppetwork's AW Jan 5 - March 12, 
'02, weekends in Brooklyn, NY. 

In the Starr Foster Dance Project's 
Alice, "the King of Hearts is a nerd, 
complete with a pocket protector, the 
White Rabbit is black, and the 
caterpillar is oily and sleazy and wears 
fishnet from neck to ankle". Grace 
Street Theatre, Richmond, VA. Feb. 28- 
Mar. 2. 

AW, through March 10. Theatre Com- 
pany at Hubbard Hall, Cambridge, NY. 

Exhibitions 

"Symbolic Logic: The Photographs of 
Lewis Carroll" will be up at San 
Francisco MoMA from August 3 rd to 
November 10 th , 2002. It then goes to 
the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston 
(Feb. 22 nd - May 26 th , '03), the Inter- 
national Center for Photography in 
New York (June 16 th to Sept. 7 th ) then 
perhaps to the Art Institute of Chicago. 

"Alice's Wonderland" at the Children's 
Discovery Museum in San Jose (www. 
cdm.org) opened 02/02/02 (one hopes 
at 02:02:02 p.m.!). Partially sponsored 
by the National Science Foundation, it 
"makes science exploration fun for 
kids" while they study shadows in a 
Pool of Tears, experiment with 
densities at a Tea Party, and so on. The 
exhibit will travel, and is booked 
through 2006. 

The stained glass window of Alice and 
the Duchess at Yale University's 
Sterling Memorial Library is visible at 
www.library.yale.edu/humanities/ 
english/glass.html. 

The statue of Alice stepping out of a 
book at the Carthage (MO) public 
library can be seen at http://carthage. 
lib.mo.us/alice.jpg. 

North Hollywood artist Mahara T. 
Sinclaire's AW murals were on display 
at Mt. San Jacinto College Fine Art 
Gallery, San Jacinto, CA through Feb. 
23, 2002. 



Auctions 

The prototype of James Bissel- 
Thomas' Alice globe [KL 67 p. 24] sold 
at Christies for £3,000. 

At an auction held on Nov. 20 and 21, 
2001, at Burgersdijk & Niermans in 
Leiden, The Netherlands, a collection 
of Dutch and other Alices brought Fl 
650,000. www.b-n.nl, catalog 314. 

On Dec. 13, 2001, a previously un- 
known seven-page Carroll letter to 
Ethel Moberly Bell was expected to 
bring £20,000 to 30,000. Dr. Peter 
Beal of Sotheby's said the letter 
contained Carroll's "most explicit 
expression of his sense of the loss of 
innocence entailed in what elsewhere 
he called 'the transition.'" 

Places 

Alice's Tea Cup, "a whimsical new tea 
salon and emporium" in the words of 
the New York Times of Dec. 19, 2001, 
recently opened at 102 West 73 rd 
Street in New York. More than 100 
varieties of tea are offered along with 
soups, salads, sandwiches, snacks, and 
an assortment of "theme-gifts", as they 
are now called, including "Drink Me" 
salt and pepper shakers, Mad Hatter tea 
pots, etc. Member Janet Jurist 
pronounced it "delightful" on a recent 
visit. Warning: if you order coffee, it 
will be served in a mug with the word 
"loser" on it. 

In a recent visit to the Weaver 
Collection at the wonderful Harry 
Ransom Humanities Research Center 
at the University of Texas at Austin, 
August Imholtz learned that Weaver 
kept on his desk two volumes from 
Lewis Carroll's library: Carroll's copy 
of the Greek New Testament and his 
Book of Common Prayer. 

Things 

"The Crazy AW Game" from Price 
Stern Sloan $6, 0-8431-7499-4, is a 
picture-matching puzzle for the six- 
and-up crowd. 

Mimi's Furniture Creations carries 
custom-made AW finery, including a 
treasure box ($325), a Humpty Dumpty 
lamp ($58-$78), bookends ($42) and 



are happy to customize other items. 
www.mimisfurniture.com; 623.566. 
2725; 20329 N. 59th Ave, A2; Glen- 
dale, AZ 85308; mimi@mimisfurni 
ture.com. 

Disney "Storybook Ornament Sets" 
include AW, $32. 

Griffin Rogers or Roger Griffin reads 
"Nonsense Stories" by LC on CD from 
"CDBaby". $13. www.cdbaby.com/cd/ 
jabberwocky; cdbaby@cdbaby.com; 
800.448.6369; 5925 NE 80th Ave, 
Portland, OR 97218. 

The "Someplace In Time: Purveyors of 
Victorian Wares" catalog offers much 
AW, including some nice tea sets. 
www.someplaceintime.com; 800.366. 
0600. 

Terry Gilliam's first solo directing 
effort "Jabberwocky" (1977) has been 
released on DVD, as has Richard Bur- 
ton's 1983 Broadway revival of Eva Le 
Gallienne's adaptation. 

U.K. expat Sas Christian's painting of 
Alice and the WR "Amandaland" can be 
seen at www.hotboxdesigns.com/ 
NewFiles/Arto f_Sas_Christian.html. 
Although the original has been sold, 
you can order digital prints for $20. 

Young folksinger Maria Papadopolou's 
new CD "In A Secret World" (in Greek) 
from Warner Music, WEA 8573 
88737 2, features AW artwork by 
Antony Glikos. 

British actress Patricia Routledge 
reads an unabridged AW, Cover to 
Cover books, 1 85549 278. £7 on 
cassette, www.covertocover.co.uk. 

Danny Kaye's rendition of Disney's 
song "I'm Late" is available on the CD 
"The Best of Danny Kaye". There are 
several CDs with this title; you'll want 
the MCA one. 

Hantel's hand-painted pewter 
miniatures "with novel movement" at 
£28 apiece from Greenwich 
Collectibles at www.greenwichcollect 
abIes.com/shop/page23.htm or 3/4 
Nelson Road, Greenwich, London 
SE10 9JB, U.K.; 01 1 44 20 8858 33 1 1 ; 
info@greenwichcollectables.com. 



A soft plaid one-of-a-kind vest of the 
Queen of Hearts ($350) BJ's Studio, 
17305 Monterey Road, Morgan Hill, 
CA 95037; 408.778.7550; brucebj@ 
webtv.net. 

Great Jabberwock quilt at www.susan 
chapman.com/quilts/jabberwock/jab 
berwock.html. 

Hand-sculpted Mad Hatter teapot 
($400) www.ezzellstudios.com/ 
ceramics/mhatl.htm or Ezzell Studios, 
Hood River, OR 97031; 541.387. 
5371; Kent@EzzellStudios. com. 

Matted prints, gift enclosure cards, 
note cards, notepads, trading cards, 
bookplates, bookmarks, party 
invitations, stationery, envelopes and 
postcards of non-Tenniel Alice 
illustrators. Story-Lovers 877.996. 
7007; bubbul@vom.com; www.story- 
lovers.com/alicecategory.html 

Stained glass Cheshire Cat 
"SunCatcher", 5" x 7", $30; www. 
stainedglassmagic.com/sun_catchers 
_cheshire.html; 800.218.6185; Con- 
tois Reynolds Studio, 1501 Trace 
Creek Road, Hamlin WV 25523; 
conreyn@stained glassmagic.com; 
800.218.6185 Orders; 304.824.5651 
Inquiries. 

Hand sewn, soft-form sculptures, set 
of five, $315; www.puppetartists.com/ 
story book_htm/al ice_2.htm; 6930 Nez 
Perce Road, Darby MT 59829; 
888.746.2438; puppets@puppet 
artists.com. 

Timeworks 13" AW clock with 
pendulum, from Kings River Gifts, 
39421 RD. 36, Kingsburg, CA 93631; 
sales@kingsrivermall.com; 
www.kingsrivermall.com/storytime/ 
alicein.htm; 559.260.0776. 

Many Tenniel needlepoint patterns (£7) 
from "SewAndSew"; www.sewandso. 
co.uk/ran591-0.html; 1453.752022; 
salesteam@sewandso.co.uk. 

Kirk's Folly has AW-themed picture 
frames ($60, $156), a watch ($103), 
earrings ($9), necklace ($45), bracelet 
($40). 401.941.4300. 236 Chapman 
St., Providence, RJ 02905. www.kirks 
folly.com; customerservice@kirks 
folly.com. Or the QVC channel! 



23 



Five different Mary Myers nutcrackers, 
roughly $150 apiece. 800.244.2197. 
kris@christmasinternational.com; 
www.christmasinternational.com/nut 
cracker/marymyers.html (scroll down 
to bottom of page for "Wonderland"). 

Mezco toys' "Scary Tales" series has a 
rather grown-up Alice (both Caucasian 
and Afro-American versions are avail- 
able), a creepy White Rabbit, and a 
frighteningly mad Hatter; www. 
mezco.net; wherever action figures are 
sold. 

Australian artist Meg Brooks' unique 
sculptures of "Alice and the Cook", and 
others ($860 in terra-cotta; $320 in 
hydrocal [gypsum]) www.coralcoast. 
com/art/Meg.Brooks/; Coral Coast Art 
Gallery, 1 9 Memory Boulevarde, Innes 
Park, Bundaberg, Queensland, Australia 
4670. (253)390-2519; artgallery@ 
coralcoast.com. 



Kiki Smith's limited edition print of 
the "Pool of Tears", intaglio and chine 
colle, $2,000. Greg Kucera Gallery, 
212 Third Avenue South, Seattle, WA 
98104; 206.624.0770; info@gregku 
cera.com; www.gregkucera.com/ 
smith.htm. 

Valerie Schwader's hyper Cheshire Cat 
is available as a postcard, notecard, or 
iron-on transfer from dargenhara@ 
hotmail.com; http://dargenhara.tripod. 
com/art.html; 1003 Jennings Street, 
Bethlehem PA, 18017. 

Printed canvas "re-creations" of Arthur 
Rackham's suite of illos ($150) from 
www.artmasterworks.com/g-alice.htm; 
artist@artmasterworks.com 

This one you need! A nine-foot tall, 550 
lb. garden sculpture of Alice by Bruce 
Friedle for $20,000. www.artdirectory. 
com/featuredart/. 



Prints of the White Rabbit and the 
Gryphon (5"*8", $30). www.galaxy 
mall.com/art/prints/gallery.html; pbx 
market@yahoo.com; 310.322.2276; 
PBX Marketing, 908 Lomita Street, El 
Segundo, CA 90245. 

Ann Cushing Gantz's portrait of Alice, 
$1200 from www.artexasgallery.com/ 
Artists/Gantz/alice-liddell.htm; Bill 
Cheek, 7802 Cornerstone Parkway, 
Dallas, TX 75225; BillCheek@ 
ARTexasGallery.com; 214.750.9723. 

"Alice Gets Her Kicks in Wonderland" 
is a song, described as "bizarre but 
pretty brilliant," on the most recent CD 
from the band Entropy. It contains the 
lyric "It's nice to see she's giving me/ 
her undivided mockery." Contact Glenn 
Alexander - glenn@glenn53.fsnet. 
co.uk. 




^^aJrii. 1 ? ..^■mn.w^,'.,,! .... rW n -,«,;• .„.. J- ^'a^-^j...^,.'... ^■^a mw -iL 



'Neo-surrealist" Norman Parker, a retired biology teacher, has been painting for nearly a half-century 
and often uses Alician imagery. See www.normanparker.com. 



For help in preparing this issue thanks are due to: Earl Abbe, Fran Abeles, Clark Allen, Ruth Berman, Joel Birenbaum, 
Llisa Demetrios Burstein, Sandor Burstein, Angelica Carpenter, Monica Edinger, Devra Kunin, Alien Grossman, 
Lauren Harman, August Imholtz, Clare Imholtz, Stephanie Lovett, Lucille Posner, Charles Stats, Alan Tannenbaum, 
Alison Tannenbaum, Edward Wakeling, Cindy, Charlotte, and Nick Watter. 

Knight Letter is the official newsletter of the Lewis Carroll Society of North America. It is published several times 
a year and is distributed free to all members. Subscriptions, business correspondence, and inquiries should be addres- 
sed to the Secretary, P.O.Box 204, Napa CA 94559. Annual membership dues are U.S. $20 (regular) and $50 (sustain- 
ing). Submissions and editorial correspondence should be sent to the Editor, Box 2006, Mill Valley CA 94942. 

President: Stephanie Lovett, uffish@earthlink.net Secretary: Cindy Watter, hedgehog@napanet.net 

Vice-President and Knight Letter Editor: Mark Burstein, wrabbit@worldpassage.net 

Lewis Carroll Society of North America Home Page: www.lewiscarroll.org 



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